A few of the many:
Basham, A. L., History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas. London: Luzac, 1951. Excellent, detailed survey of another Samana sect, contemporary to the Buddha.
Fairservis, Walter A., The Roots of Ancient India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975. Detailed archaeological study of early Indic civilization.
Gonda, Jan, Vedic Literature: Samhitas and Brahmanas. Wiesbaden, 1975. An authoritative book by a fine scholar.
Hopkins, Thomas J., The Hindu Religious Tradition, 2nd ed. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1982. See especially the first chapters and the bibliography.
Jaini, Padmanabh S., The Jaina Path of Purification. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Treats another Samana school from the Buddha's time.
Jayatilleke, K. N., Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1963. Sophisticated, thorough-going study of early Buddhist logic, epistemology, and semantics, somewhat marred by the author's attempts to make Buddhist thought respectible in terms of Logical Positivism. Excellent survey of sramana movement, pp. 69-168.
Johnson, Willard, Poetry and Speculation of the Rg Veda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. Describes the early development of the Sanskrit world view, discussing many Buddhist themes.
Warder, A. K., Outline of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1971. Contains excellent discussions of the sramana movements, Lokayata in particular, and of the influence of astronomy on the Indian world view.
[5.1.2] The Biography of the Buddha
Bareau, Andre, Recherches sur la biographie du bouddha. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1963. Exhaustive comparative study of the Pali sources, aimed at disproving Frauwallner's thesis (below) about the original biography of the Buddha.
Beyer, Experience, contains a lively translation from Cantos 13 and 14 of Asvaghosa's Buddhacarita (Acts of the Buddha), on the Awakening, pp. 186-197.
Conze, Edward, Buddhist Scriptures. Baltimore: Penguin, 1959. Gives a condensed translation of the Buddhacarita, pp. 34-66.
Cummings, Mary, The Lives of the Buddha in the Art and Literature of Asia. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1982.
Frauwallner, E., The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1956. Advances the thesis that there was originally a full biography of the Buddha that was then lost except for fragments preseved in the early canons.
Johnston, E. H., trans., The Buddhacarita, Or, Acts of the Buddha. 3d ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1984. The best complete translation, with an excellent introduction.
Karetsky, Patricia Eichenbaum, The Life of the Buddha: Ancient Scriptural and Pictorial Traditions. Lanham: University Press of America, 1992.
Nakamura, Hajime, Gotama Buddha. Los Angeles: Buddhist Books International, 1977. A short, scholarly retelling of the life.
Ñanamoli, Bhikkhu, The Life of the Buddha. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1972. Life and teachings of the Buddha selected from Pali sources. One of the best books to use as a "first reader" for Pali Buddhism.
Narada Thera, The Buddha and His Teachings. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1988 (reprint).
Reynolds Frank E., and Charles Hallisey, "The Buddha," in Kitagawa and Cummings, Buddhism and Asian History: 29-49. Surveys the concept of "Buddha" in all its forms.
Reynolds, Frank E., "The Many Lives of Buddha: A Study of Sacred Biography and Theravada Tradition," in Reynolds, Frank E. and Donald Capps, eds., The Biographical Process. The Hague: 1976.
Thomas, E. J., The Life of the Buddha as Legend and History. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1927. Readable, scholarly, standard.
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 38-83, 331-349.
[5.1.3] The Jatakas
Cowell, E. B., ed., Jataka Stories. Three volumes. (London: Pali Text Society, 1956; there is also a more recent reprint by Motilal Banarsidass.) Very free translations of the canonical and commentarial text of the Pali Jatakas.
Horner, I. B., Ten Jataka Stories (London, 1957; there is also a more recent reprint by Mahamakut Press, Bangkok). Very literal translations.
Jones, John Garrett, Tales and Teachings of the Buddha: The Jataka Stories in Relation to the Pali Canon. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1979.
Many children's versions of the more popular Jataka tales have been issued, both in Asia and in the West. An interesting study could be made of how they are altered in becoming modern children's stories.
[5.1.4] The Wheel of Life
Gelman, H. S., et al., trans., Petavatthu: Stories of the Departed, & Vimanavatthu: Stories of the Mansions. London: Pali Text Society, 1974. Translations of relatively late Pali texts in which hungry ghosts and devas appear to meditators to recount their mode of life and their actions, while human, that led to such a rebirth.
Haldar, J. R. ,Early Buddhist Mythology. New Delhi: Manohar, 1977. A study of little-known subjects relating to early Buddhism.
Law, B. C., The Buddhist Conception of Spirits. Varanasi, India: Bharatiya Publishing House, 1974. (Reprint from 1936.)
-----, Heaven and Hell in Buddhist Perspective. Varanasi, India: Bharatiya Publishing House, 1973. (Repreint from 1925.)
Matsunaga, Daigan and Alicia Matsunaga, The Buddhist Concept of Hell. New York: Philosophical Library, 1972. From the Vedas through Mahayana.
McDermott, James P., "Karma and Rebirth in Early Buddhism," in Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980): 165-192.
Renou, Louis, et Jean Filliazat, L'lnde classique. Tome 1 (Nos. 1-1357). Pans: Payot, 1947. Tome 2 (Nos. 1358-2494). Paris: Imprimeries Nationale, 1953. The standard topical encyclopedia of Indology. Tome 2, pp. 315-608, presents everything the fledgling scholar should learn about Buddhism and much that is new to veterans. On pantheon, see Nos. 1029, 1077-1079, 1086-1087, 2266-2272.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Wings to Awakening (Barre, Mass.: Dhamma Dana Publications, 1996), also available at AI [M]. On karma, see sections I/A and I/B.
Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 289-291, 308 330.
[5.1.5] Dependent Co-arising
Bodhi, Bhikkhu, trans., The Great Discourse on Causation: The Mahanidana Sutta and its Commentaries. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1984. Contains a clear introduction and appendix giving the commentarial and Abhidhamma explanations of dependent co-arising.
Jayatilleke, Theory of Knowledge, pp. 445-457.
Johansson, Rune E. A., The Dynamic Psychology of Early Buddhism. London: Curzon, 1979. Pali sources on dependent co-arising, explained with a strong slant from Western psychology.
Kalupahana, David J., Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1975. The most complete treatment of the topic in English. Criticized by Paul Griffiths in On Being Mindless (LaSalle, Il.: Open Court, 1986), p. 32f. For an alternative to both Kalupahana and Griffiths, see Thanissaro, below.
Ñanananda, Bhikkhu, Concept and Reality in Early Buddhist Thought. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1976.
-----, The Magic of the Mind. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society, 1974. This work and preceding one treat dependent co-arising in the context of early Buddhist psychology.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Wings to Awakening . On dependent co-arising, see Introduction and section III/H/iii.
Thomas, E. J., The History of Buddhist Thought. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1933. On dependent co-arising, see pp. 58-70.
Warder, Indian Buddhism. On dependent co-arising, pp. 107-156.