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Anonymous
Anonymous asked in Science & MathematicsBiology · 1 decade ago

Definitions?

I am working on my vocab from my biology class and i am having a few troubles with some definitions. here are the words see if you can find them :)

Carbon Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

Oxygen Cycle

Diversity

Energy Pyramid

Variable

Evidence

Quantative

Qualitive

Respiration

Bioethics

Geological Record

Hierarchy

Evidence

Dichotomy

Hormonal Modification

Gene Replication

Gene Splicing

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    Carbon Cycle:

    The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

    The cycle is usually thought of as four major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. The reservoirs are the atmosphere, the terrestrial biosphere (which usually includes freshwater systems and non-living organic material, such as soil carbon), the oceans (which includes dissolved inorganic carbon and living and non-living marine biota), and the sediments (which includes fossil fuels). The annual movements of carbon, the carbon exchanges between reservoirs, occur because of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest active pool of carbon near the surface of the Earth, but the deep ocean part of this pool does not rapidly exchange with the atmosphere.

    Nitrogen Cycle:

    The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the transformations of nitrogen and nitrogen-containing compounds in nature. It is a gaseous cycle.

    Earth's atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen, making it the largest pool of nitrogen. Nitrogen is essential for many biological processes; and is crucial for any life here on Earth. It is in all amino acids, is incorporated into proteins, and is present in the bases that make up nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. In plants, much of the nitrogen is used in chlorophyll molecules which are essential for photosynthesis and further growth

    Oxygen Cycle:

    The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmosphere and life as we know it. Because of the vast amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere, even if all photosynthesis were to cease it would take between 5,000 to 2.4 million years to strip out more or less all oxygen.

    Diversity:

    Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems.

    Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, the product of four billion years of evolution.

    Energy Pyramid:

    An energy pyramid is the graphical representation of the trophic levels (nutritional) by which the incoming solar energy is transferred into an ecosystem.

    Variable

    In computer science and mathematics, a variable is a symbolic representation used to denote a quantity or expression. In mathematics, a variable often represents an "unknown" quantity that has the potential to change; in computer science, it represents a place where a quantity can be stored. Variables are often contrasted with constants, which are known and unchanging.

    The term has a similar meaning in the physical sciences and engineering: a variable is a quantity whose value may vary over the course of an experiment (including simulations), across samples, or during the operation of a system. Variables are generally distinct from parameters, although what is a variable in one context may be a parameter in another. For more on this distinction, see the article on "parameter".

    In applied statistics, a variable is a measurable factor, characteristic, or attribute of an individual or a system—in other words, something that might be expected to vary over time or between individuals. Random variables are an idealization of this in mathematical statistics, where they are defined as measurable functions from a probability space to a measurable space.

    Evidence:

    Evidence in its broadest sense includes anything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth of an assertion. Philosophically, evidence can include propositions which are presumed to be true used in support of other propositions that are presumed to be falsifiable. The term has specialized meanings when used with respect to specific fields, such as policy, scientific research, criminal investigations, and legal discourse.

    Quantative:

    A 'quantitative' attribute is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. Measurements of any particular quantitative property are expressed as a specific quantity, referred to as a unit, multiplied by a number. Examples of physical quantities are distance, mass, and time. Many attributes in the social sciences, including abilities and personality traits, are also studied as quantitative properties and principles.

    Qualitative:

    Qualitative is used to describe:

    1. Qualitative research, featuring a high degree of subjectivityl

    2. Qualitative data, data that is not quantified

    Respiration:

    In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the clean air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. This is in contrast to the biochemical definition of respiration, which refers to cellular respiration: the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water, carbon dioxide and ATP (energy). Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the animal, while physiologic respiration concerns the bulk flow and transport of metabolites between the organism and external environment.

    In unicellular organisms, simple diffusion is sufficient for gas exchange: every cell is constantly bathed in the external environment, with only a short distance for gases to flow across. In contrast, complex multicellular organisms such as humans have a much greater distance between the environment and their innermost cells, thus, a respiratory system is needed for effective gas exchange. The respiratory system works in concert with a circulatory system to carry gases to and from the tissues.

    Bioethics

    Bioethics is the philosophical study of the ethical controversies brought about by advances in biology and medicine. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, philosophy, and theology.

    Geological Record

    The Geologic temperature record are changes in Earth's environment as determined from geologic evidence on multi-million to billion (109) year time scales.

    Dichotomy

    A dichotomy is any splitting of a whole into exactly two non-overlapping parts.

    In other words, it is a bipartition of elements. i.e. nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts, and everything must belong to one part or the other. They are often contrasting and spoken of as "opposites."

    The above applies directly when the term is used in mathematics, philosophy or linguistics. For example, if there is a concept A, and it is split into parts B and not-B, then the parts form a dichotomy: they are mutually exclusive, since no part of B is contained in not-B and vice-versa, and they are jointly exhaustive, since they cover all of A, and together again give A.

    A false dichotomy is a logical fallacy consisting of a supposed dichotomy which fails one or both of the conditions: it is not jointly exhaustive or not mutually exclusive. In its most common form, two entities are presented as if they are exhaustive, when in fact other alternatives are possible. In some cases, they may be presented as if they are mutually exclusive although there is a broad middle ground (see also undistributed middle).

    Dichotomies are common in Western thought. C.P. Snow believes that Western society has become an argument culture (The Two Cultures). In The Argument Culture (1998), Deborah Tannen suggests that the dialogue of Western culture is characterized by a warlike atmosphere in which the winning side has truth (like a trophy). In such a dialogue, the middle alternatives are virtually ignored.

    In economics, the classical dichotomy is the division between the real side of the economy and the monetary side. According to the classical dichotomy, changes in monetary variables do not affect real values as output, employment, and the real interest rate. Money is therefore neutral in the sense that it cannot affect these real variables.

    In set theory, a dichotomous relation R is such that either aRb, bRa or both.

    In biology, a dichotomy is a division of organisms into two groups, typically based on a characteristic present in one group and absent in the other. Such dichotomies are used as part of the process of identifying species, as part of a dichotomous key, which asks a series of questions, each of which narrows down the set of organisms. A well known dichotomy is the question "does it have a backbone?", used to divide species into vertebrates and invertebrates.

    In botany, a dichotomy is a mode of branching by repeated bifurcation. Thus a focus on branching rather than division.

    In computer science, more specifically programming language engineering, the term dichotomy is used to denote fundamental dualities in a language's design. For instance, C++ has a dichotomy in its memory model (heap versus stack), whereas Java has a dichotomy in its type system (references versus primitive data types).

    In the anthropologic field of theology and in philosophy, dichotomy is the belief that humans consist of a soul and a body. (See Mind-body dichotomy) This stands in contrast to trichotomy.

    Dichotomy is also a method of execution wherein the victim is cut in two.

    Divine Dichotomy as mentioned in Conversations With God.

    In sociology dichotomies are the subject of attention because they may form the basis to divisions and inequality. For example, the Domestic-public dichotomy divides men's and women's roles in a society, which may

  • 5 years ago

    My definition is probably a long way from the text book definition of responsibility. It is: To live in innocence and freedom. To care for our home the Earth and to care for all the living creatures who inhabiit it.

  • 1 decade ago

    Energy Pyramid -- pictorial representation of the loss of energy as it passes up the food chain (approx. 10% of energy is lost at each level). There are usually 3-4 levels to the pyramid.

  • 1 decade ago

    Gene Splicing:The process of producing altered DNA, usually by breaking a DNA molecule and inserting new genes.

    Dichotomy:the process or result of division into two parts.

    ~*K*~

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  • Evidence: the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.

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