英翻中 求高手幫忙~超急需~

What are polymers?

What are polymers for one thing they are complex and giant molecules and are different from low molecular weight compounds like, say, common salt. To contrast the difference, the molecular weight of common salt is only 58.5, while that of a polymer can be as high as several hundred thousands, even more than thousand thousands. These big molecules or "marco-molecules" are made up of much molecules. The small molecules, which combine to from a big molecule, can be of one or more chemical compounds. To illustrate, imagine that a set of rings has the same size and is made of the same material. When these rings are interlinked, the chain formed can be considered as representing a poymer from molecules of the same compound. Alternatively, individual rings could be of different sizes and materials, and interlinked to represent a polymer from molecules of different compounds.

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This interlinking of many units has given the polymer its name, poly meaning "many" and mer meaning "part"(in Greek). As an example,

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, a gaseous compound called butadiene,with a molecular weight of 54, combines nearly 4,000 times and gives apolymer known as polybutadiene(a synthetic rubber) with about 200,000 molecular weight. The low molecular weight compounds from which the polymers from are known as monomers.

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The picture is simply as follows:

butadiene+butadiene+....+ butadiene→polybutadiene

(4,000 times)

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One can thus see how a substance (monomer) with as small a molecular weight as 54 grows to become a giant molecule (polymer) of (54*4000~) 200,000 molecular weight. It is essentially the "giantness"

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of the size of the polymer molecule that makes its behavior different from that of a commonly known chemical compound such as benzene.

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Solid benzene, for instance, melts to become liquid benzene at 5.5度 and, on further heating, boils into gaseous benzene. As against this well-defined behavior of a simple chemioal compound,

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a polymer like polyethylene does not melt sharply at one particular temperature into clean liquid . Instead, it becomes increasingly softer and, utimately, turns into a very viscous, tacky molten mass.

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Further heating of this hot, viscous, molten polymer does convert it into various gases but it is no longer polyethylene.

Another striking difference with respect to the behavior of a polymer and

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that of a low molecular weight compound concerns the dissolution process. Let us take, for example, sodium chloride and add it slowly to a fixed to a fixed quantity of water. The salt, which represents a low molecular weight compound, dissolves in water up to a point

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(called saturation point)but, thereafter, any further quantity added does not go into solution but settles at the bottom and just remains there as solid. The viscosity of the saturated salt solution is not very much different

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from that of water. But if we take a polymer instead, say, polyvinyl and add it to a fixed quantity of water, the polymer does not go into solution immediately. The globules of polyvinyl alcohol fist absorb water, swell and get distorted in shap and after a long

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time go into solution. Also, we can add a very large quantity of the polymer to the same quantity of water without the saturation point ever being reached. As more and more quantity of polymer is added to water, the time taken for the dissolution of the

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polymer obviously increases and the mix ultimately assumes a soft, dough-like consistency. Another peculiarity is that, in water, polyvinyl alcohol never retains its original powdery nature as the excess sodium chloride does in a saturated salt solution.

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In conclusion, we can say that (1) the long time taken by polvinyl alcohol for dissolution, (2) the absence of a saturation point, and

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(3) the increase in the viscosity are all characteristics of a typical polymer being dissolved in a solvent and these characteristics are

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attributed mainly to the large molecular size of the polymer. The behavior of a low molecular weight compound and that of a polymer on dissolution are illustrated in.

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因為奇摩的字數限制 所以 斷斷續續的 小弟在此先說聲抱歉= =

由於自己翻過 但怪怪的 所以急需高手幫忙翻一下 好比對自己翻的

麻煩別用 World的翻譯(很爛)之類的...

麻煩ㄖ各位大大 感恩

Update 18:

補充一點...

別用 網頁翻譯的"語言工具"

如果用那個翻的話 那我自己翻就好了

2 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    什麼是聚合物?

    什麼是聚合物的一件事,他們是複雜的和巨型分子,並從不同的低分子化合物一樣,也就是說,常見的鹽。對比的差異,分子量共同鹽是只有58.5 ,而一個聚合物可高達數十萬,甚至超過數千數千人。這些大的分子或“馬分子”組成的多分子。小分子,其中聯合起來,從一個大的分子,可以一個或多個化合物。舉例來說,可想而知,一套環具有相同的尺寸和了相同的材料。當這些戒指是相互關聯的,鏈條的形成可被視為代表poymer從分子相同的化合物。另外,個別戒指可以不同大小和材料,相互關聯的代表了聚合物分子從不同的化合物。

    這相互關聯的許多單位給了聚合物其名稱,聚,意思是“很多”和匯率,意思是“部分” (在希臘) 。作為一個例子,

    ,氣體化合物所謂的丁二烯,分子量為54 ,結合了近4000倍,並給出了apolymer稱為聚丁二烯(一種合成橡膠)約20.0萬分子量。低分子化合物,其中聚合物被稱為單體。

    圖片只不過是如下:

    丁二烯+丁二烯+....+丁二烯→聚丁二烯

    ( 4000次)

    1由此可見,如何一種物質(單體)與小分子量為54的增長,成為一個巨大的分子(聚合物) ( 54 * 4000 〜 ) 200000分子量。這基本上是“ giantness ”

    的大小,聚合物分子,使自己的行為不同,從一個俗稱化學化合物,如苯。

    堅實的苯,舉例來說,融化成為液體苯在5.5度,並就進一步暖氣,歸結到氣態苯。作為對這種清楚界定的行為,一個簡單的chemioal化合物,

    2008年5月11日13時53分00秒補充

    聚合物聚乙烯一樣,並不熔體急劇在某一特定溫度到清潔液體。相反,它變得越來越軟, utimately ,變成一個粘性非常大, tacky鋼水質量。

    進一步加熱,這熱,粘性,熔融聚合物是否轉化成各種氣體,但它不再是聚乙烯。

    另一個驚人的差異與尊重的行為,聚合物和

    即低分子量化合物關注的溶解過程。讓我們採取,例如,氯化鈉,並將其添加慢慢一個固定的一個固定數量的水。鹽,這代表了低分子量化合物,可溶於水的多達1點

    (所謂的飽和點) ,但此後,任何進一步的補充,數量不進入的解決辦法,但解決了在底部和公正仍然是有作為固體。粘度飽和鹽溶液,是不是非常不同

    從這個水。但如果我們採取聚合物,而是說,聚乙烯醇,並將其添加到一個固定數量的水,聚合物不進入的解決辦法,立即。該球聚乙烯醇拳頭吸收水分,膨脹和扭曲,在獲得shap和經過長期的

    時間進入的解決辦法。同時,我們可以添加一個非常大的數量,聚合物,以同樣數量的水,無本飽和點以往任何時候都正在達成共識。隨著越來越多的數量,聚合物添加到水,花費的時間為解散了

    聚合物明顯增加和組合,最終假設一軟,麵團般的一致性。另一個特點是,在水,聚乙烯醇從來沒有保留其原有的粉狀性質過剩氯化鈉是否在飽和鹽溶液。

    最後,我們可以說, ( 1 )長的時間所採取的polvinyl酒精溶解, ( 2 )缺乏一個飽和點,

    的增加,粘度都的特點,一個典型的聚合物溶解在溶劑和這些特點,主要是由於大量分子大小的聚合物。行為的低分子量化合物和一種聚合物對解散說明英寸

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  • 1 decade ago

    以下是我用翻譯機翻譯的

    有些辭好像翻譯的怪怪的 或許別人會有更好的答案

    以下給你參考

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------

    什麼是聚合物?

    什麼是聚合物的一件事,他們是複雜的和巨型分子,

    並從不同的低分子化合物一樣,也就是說,常見的鹽。

    對比的差異,分子量共同鹽是只有58.5 ,

    而一個聚合物可高達數十萬,甚至超過數千數千人。

    這些大的分子或“馬分子”組成的多分子。

    小分子,其中聯合起來,從一個大的分子,

    可以一個或多個化合物。

    舉例來說,可想而知,

    一套環具有相同的尺寸和了相同的材料。

    當這些戒指是相互關聯的,

    鏈條的形成可被視為代表聚合物從分子相同的化合物。

    另外,個別戒指可以不同大小和材料,

    相互關聯的代表了聚合物分子從不同的化合物。

    Source(s): 翻譯機
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