Can you please tell some history about washington d.c.?I need this for school tommorow.Thank You So Much!?

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  • Bex
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago
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    History

    Main article: History of Washington, D.C.

    View of Washington, D.C., from Arlington

    View of Washington, D.C., from Arlington

    The District of Columbia, founded on July 16, 1790, is a federal district as specified by Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution. The land forming the original District came from the state of Maryland and Commonwealth of Virginia. However, the area south of the Potomac River (39 square miles or about 100 km²) was returned, or "retroceded", to Virginia in 1847 and now is incorporated into Arlington County and the City of Alexandria. The remaining land that constitutes the District of Columbia is the territory originally ceded by Maryland, including islands in the Potomac River.

    [edit] Planning

    Pierre Charles L'Enfant's Plan of the City of Washington, as revised by Andrew Ellicott

    Pierre Charles L'Enfant's Plan of the City of Washington, as revised by Andrew Ellicott

    A Southern site for the new country's capital was agreed upon at a dinner between James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, hosted by Thomas Jefferson. The site was part of the deal that led to the new national government's assumption of debts from the Revolutionary War.[8] (The southern states had largely paid off their war debts; collectivizing debt was to northern advantage, so a southern capital was a compromise.) The city's plan was largely the work of Pierre Charles L’Enfant, a French-born architect, engineer and city planner who first arrived in the American colonies as a military engineer with Major General Lafayette. L'Enfant drew up a basic plan for Washington, D.C. in 1791; the city layout owed much to the Baroque style, which was the dominant style in many North American and European planned cities of the day. The plan incorporated broad avenues and major streets which radiate out from traffic circles and rectangular parks, providing open space and landscaping, sites for various statues and smaller memorials, and vistas towards important landmarks and monuments. (Many of these places now also serve as entrances to underground stations of the region's heavy-rail Metro public transit system.) While all of the original colonies had avenues named for them, the most prominent states received more prestigious locations under Andrew Ellicott's later plan for the city. Massachusetts Avenue was the northernmost of three principal east-west arteries, Virginia Avenue the southernmost, and Pennsylvania Avenue was given the honor of connecting the White House to the planned Capitol building. In the original plan, all three roads reached neighboring Georgetown. Maryland Avenue, another early major street, extended northeastward from the Capitol site to the original city limits, where it met the Bladensburg road to points north.

    The initial plan for the "Federal District" was a diamond, measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (259 km²). The actual site on the Potomac River was chosen by President Washington. Washington may have chosen the site for its natural scenery, believing that the Patowmack Canal would transform the Potomac into a great navigable waterway leading to the Ohio and the American interior. The city was officially named "Washington" on September 9, 1791.[9] Out of modesty, George Washington never referred to it as such, preferring to call it "the Federal City."[10] Despite choosing the site and living nearby at Mount Vernon, he rarely visited the city. The federal district was named the District of Columbia because Columbia was a poetic name for the United States used at the time, which was close to the 300th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492.

    1888 German map of Washington, D.C.

    1888 German map of Washington, D.C.

    As originally platted, the District of Columbia was carved out of two adjacent counties - one in Virginia, one in Maryland — and the portion from each state was organized as a separate county. Alexandria County was on the south bank of the Potomac and was retroceded to Virginia in the nineteenth century (where it later became the independent city of Alexandria and the County of Arlington). The County of Washington was on the north bank. In addition to the new City of Washington being constructed in the geographic and geometric center of the District, there were a number of other communities — including Georgetown (founded in 1751 and named for its co-founders and/or King George II), Tenley, and the village commonly known today as "Anacostia." In time, all of these communities were amalgamated to the City of Washington, which thus became coextensive with the District of Columbia so that a separate County of Washington was no longer needed, so it was abolished.

    As constructed, Washington City was centered on its current area but ended at present-day Rock Creek Park on the west and Florida Avenue and Benning Road on the north. Florida Avenue was then called "Boundary Street."

    In 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and Benjamin Banneker surveyed the border of the District with both Maryland and Virginia, placing boundary stones at every mile point; many of these still stand.

    The cornerstone of the White House, the first newly constructed building of the new capital, was laid on October 13, 1792.[11] That was the day after the first celebrations of Columbus Day in the United States.[12]

    [edit] 19th century

    Ford's Theatre in the 19th century — photo by Mathew Brady.

    Ford's Theatre in the 19th century — photo by Mathew Brady.

    On August 24, 1814, British forces burned the capital during the most notable raid of the War of 1812 in retaliation for the sacking and burning of York (modern-day Toronto) during the winter months, which had left many Canadians homeless. President James Madison and U.S. forces fled before the British forces arrived and burned public buildings, including the Capitol and the Treasury building. The White House was burned and gutted. The Washington Navy Yard was also burned — by American sailors — to keep ships and stores from falling into the hands of the British. The home of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, located at the Marine Barracks, was one of the few government buildings not burned by the raiding British soldiers as a sign of respect, and is now the oldest public building in continuous use in the nation's capital. The Patent Office was also spared, as a result of the Superintendent of Patents pleading with British soldiers and contending that destroying the store of knowledge therein would be a disservice to mankind. Civilians were not directly targeted and, initially, the British had approached the city hoping to secure a truce. However, they were fired upon, triggering frustration and anger among the British, which ultimately led to the sacking of government buildings.[13]

    During the 1830s, the District was home to one of the largest slave trading operations in the country (see Alexandria, Virginia).

    In 1846, the population of Alexandria County, who resented the loss of business with the competing port of Georgetown and feared greater impact if slavery were outlawed in the capital, voted in a referendum to ask Congress to retrocede Alexandria back to the Commonwealth of Virginia. Congress agreed to do so on July 9 of that year. The slave trade, though not slavery, in the capital was outlawed as part of the Compromise of 1850.

    The enormous complex of defenses that protected Washington, D.C. in 1865 made that city one of the most heavily-defended locations in the world.

    The enormous complex of defenses that protected Washington, D.C. in 1865 made that city one of the most heavily-defended locations in the world.

    Main article: Washington, D.C. in the American Civil War

    Washington remained a small city — the 1860 Census put the population at just over 75,000 people — until the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. The significant expansion of the federal government to administer the war and its legacies such as veterans' pensions led to notable growth in the city's population, as did a large influx of freed slaves. By 1870, the District population had grown to nearly 132,000.

    In July 1864, Confederate forces under General Jubal Anderson Early made a brief raid into Washington, culminating in the Battle of Fort Stevens. The Confederates were repelled, and Early eventually returned to the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. The fort is located near present-day Walter Reed Army Medical Center in northwest Washington. This was the only battle where a U.S. president, Abraham Lincoln, was present and under fire while in office.[14]

    In the early 1870s, Washington was given a territorial government, but Governor Alexander Robey Shepherd's reputation for extravagance resulted in Congress abolishing his office in favor of direct rule. Congressional governance of the District would continue for a century.

    Newspaper Row, Washington, D.C., 1874

    Newspaper Row, Washington, D.C., 1874

    In 1878, Congress passed an Organic Act that made the boundaries of the city of Washington coterminous with those of the District of Columbia. This effectively eliminated Washington County; Georgetown, technically made a part of the city, was allowed to remain nominally separate until 1895 when it was formally combined with Washington.

    The Washington Monument, with construction stalled by other priorities, finally opened in 1888. Plans were laid to further develop the monumental aspects of the city, with work contributed by such noted figures as Frederick Law Olmsted and Daniel Burnham. However, development of the Lincoln Memorial, Jefferson Memorial and other structures on the National Mall, and construction of Potomac Park, Maryland did not begin until the early 20th century.

    [edit] 20th century

    Crowds surroun

    Source(s): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington,_D.C. (take a look at the cite for more information)
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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    Kids these days- too lazy to use a search engine? C'mon!

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington,_D.C.#Hist...

    Cite your sources, or you'll get an F for plagiarism!

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  • 1 decade ago

    Planning

    Pierre Charles L'Enfant's Plan of the City of Washington, as revised by Andrew EllicottA Southern site for the new country's capital was agreed upon at a dinner between James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, hosted by Thomas Jefferson. The site was part of the deal that led to the new national government's assumption of debts from the Revolutionary War.[8] (The southern states had largely paid off their war debts; collectivizing debt was to northern advantage, so a southern capital was a compromise.) The city's plan was largely the work of Pierre Charles L’Enfant, a French-born architect, engineer and city planner who first arrived in the American colonies as a military engineer with Major General Lafayette. L'Enfant drew up a basic plan for Washington, D.C. in 1791; the city layout owed much to the Baroque style, which was the dominant style in many North American and European planned cities of the day. The plan incorporated broad avenues and major streets which radiate out from traffic circles and rectangular parks, providing open space and landscaping, sites for various statues and smaller memorials, and vistas towards important landmarks and monuments. (Many of these places now also serve as entrances to underground stations of the region's heavy-rail Metro public transit system.) While all of the original colonies had avenues named for them, the most prominent states received more prestigious locations under Andrew Ellicott's later plan for the city. Massachusetts Avenue was the northernmost of three principal east-west arteries, Virginia Avenue the southernmost, and Pennsylvania Avenue was given the honor of connecting the White House to the planned Capitol building. In the original plan, all three roads reached neighboring Georgetown. Maryland Avenue, another early major street, extended northeastward from the Capitol site to the original city limits, where it met the Bladensburg road to points north.

    The initial plan for the "Federal District" was a diamond, measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (259 km²). The actual site on the Potomac River was chosen by President Washington. Washington may have chosen the site for its natural scenery, believing that the Patowmack Canal would transform the Potomac into a great navigable waterway leading to the Ohio and the American interior. The city was officially named "Washington" on September 9, 1791.[9] Out of modesty, George Washington never referred to it as such, preferring to call it "the Federal City."[10] Despite choosing the site and living nearby at Mount Vernon, he rarely visited the city. The federal district was named the District of Columbia because Columbia was a poetic name for the United States used at the time, which was close to the 300th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492.

    1888 German map of Washington, D.C.As originally platted, the District of Columbia was carved out of two adjacent counties - one in Virginia, one in Maryland — and the portion from each state was organized as a separate county. Alexandria County was on the south bank of the Potomac and was retroceded to Virginia in the nineteenth century (where it later became the independent city of Alexandria and the County of Arlington). The County of Washington was on the north bank. In addition to the new City of Washington being constructed in the geographic and geometric center of the District, there were a number of other communities — including Georgetown (founded in 1751 and named for its co-founders and/or King George II), Tenley, and the village commonly known today as "Anacostia." In time, all of these communities were amalgamated to the City of Washington, which thus became coextensive with the District of Columbia so that a separate County of Washington was no longer needed, so it was abolished.

    As constructed, Washington City was centered on its current area but ended at present-day Rock Creek Park on the west and Florida Avenue and Benning Road on the north. Florida Avenue was then called "Boundary Street."

    In 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and Benjamin Banneker surveyed the border of the District with both Maryland and Virginia, placing boundary stones at every mile point; many of these still stand.

    The cornerstone of the White House, the first newly constructed building of the new capital, was laid on October 13, 1792.[11] That was the day after the first celebrations of Columbus Day in the United States.[12]

    19th century

    Ford's Theatre in the 19th century — photo by Mathew Brady.On August 24, 1814, British forces burned the capital during the most notable raid of the War of 1812 in retaliation for the sacking and burning of York (modern-day Toronto) during the winter months, which had left many Canadians homeless. President James Madison and U.S. forces fled before the British forces arrived and burned public buildings, including the Capitol and the Treasury building. The White House was burned and gutted. The Washington Navy Yard was also burned — by American sailors — to keep ships and stores from falling into the hands of the British. The home of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, located at the Marine Barracks, was one of the few government buildings not burned by the raiding British soldiers as a sign of respect, and is now the oldest public building in continuous use in the nation's capital. The Patent Office was also spared, as a result of the Superintendent of Patents pleading with British soldiers and contending that destroying the store of knowledge therein would be a disservice to mankind. Civilians were not directly targeted and, initially, the British had approached the city hoping to secure a truce. However, they were fired upon, triggering frustration and anger among the British, which ultimately led to the sacking of government buildings.[13]

    During the 1830s, the District was home to one of the largest slave trading operations in the country (see Alexandria, Virginia).

    In 1846, the population of Alexandria County, who resented the loss of business with the competing port of Georgetown and feared greater impact if slavery were outlawed in the capital, voted in a referendum to ask Congress to retrocede Alexandria back to the Commonwealth of Virginia. Congress agreed to do so on July 9 of that year. The slave trade, though not slavery, in the capital was outlawed as part of the Compromise of 1850.

    The enormous complex of defenses that protected Washington, D.C. in 1865 made that city one of the most heavily-defended locations in the world.Main article: Washington, D.C. in the American Civil War

    Washington remained a small city — the 1860 Census put the population at just over 75,000 people — until the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. The significant expansion of the federal government to administer the war and its legacies such as veterans' pensions led to notable growth in the city's population, as did a large influx of freed slaves. By 1870, the District population had grown to nearly 132,000.

    In July 1864, Confederate forces under General Jubal Anderson Early made a brief raid into Washington, culminating in the Battle of Fort Stevens. The Confederates were repelled, and Early eventually returned to the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. The fort is located near present-day Walter Reed Army Medical Center in northwest Washington. This was the only battle where a U.S. president, Abraham Lincoln, was present and under fire while in office.[14]

    In the early 1870s, Washington was given a territorial government, but Governor Alexander Robey Shepherd's reputation for extravagance resulted in Congress abolishing his office in favor of direct rule. Congressional governance of the District would continue for a century.

    Newspaper Row, Washington, D.C., 1874In 1878, Congress passed an Organic Act that made the boundaries of the city of Washington coterminous with those of the District of Columbia. This effectively eliminated Washington County; Georgetown, technically made a part of the city, was allowed to remain nominally separate until 1895 when it was formally combined with Washington.

    The Washington Monument, with construction stalled by other priorities, finally opened in 1888. Plans were laid to further develop the monumental aspects of the city, with work contributed by such noted figures as Frederick Law Olmsted and Daniel Burnham. However, development of the Lincoln Memorial, Jefferson Memorial and other structures on the National Mall, and construction of Potomac Park, Maryland did not begin until the early 20th century.

    20th century

    Crowds surrounding the Reflecting Pool, during the 1963 March on WashingtonThe many Depression relief agencies created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal in the 1930's, followed by World War II in the 1940's, brought a great increase to the city's population. Roommates doubled up in scarce apartments and competed for space on buses and trolleys, as reported in David Brinkley's book. The District's population peaked in 1950, when the census for that year recorded a record population of 802,178 people.[15] At the time, the city was the ninth-largest in the country, just ahead of Boston and close behind St. Louis. The population declined in the following decades, mirroring the suburban emigration from many of the nation's older urban centers following World War II and the racial integration of public schools.

    The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified on March 29, 1961, allowing residents of Washington, D.C., to vote for president and have their votes count in the Electoral College as long as the District does not have more electoral votes than the least populous state.

    After the assassinati

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