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Anonymous asked in HealthDiseases & ConditionsOther - Diseases · 1 decade ago

hashimoto's thyroiditis?

When and Who discovered hashimoto's thyroiditis?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

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    What is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    What is an autoimmune disease?

    What are the symptoms of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    Does this disease run in families?

    How can I know for sure if I have this disease?

    What is the treatment for this disease?

    What would happen without medicine to make sure my thyroid works?

    What happens if I have this disease and get pregnant?

    What is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune thyroid disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys the thyroid gland. The thyroid helps set the rate of metabolism, which is the rate at which the body uses energy. Hashimoto’s stops the gland from making enough thyroid hormones for the body to work the way it should. It is the most common thyroid disease in the U.S.

    What is an autoimmune disease?

    An autoimmune disease occurs when the body's immune system becomes misdirected and attacks the organs, cells or tissues that it was designed to protect. About 75% of autoimmune diseases occur in women, most often during their childbearing years.

    What are the symptoms of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    Some patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis may have no symptoms. However, the common symptoms are fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, weight gain, forgetfulness, muscle weakness, puffy face, dry skin and hair, constipation, muscle cramps, and increased menstrual flow. Some patients have major swelling of the thyroid gland in the front of the neck, called goiter.

    Does this disease run in families?

    There is some evidence that Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis can have a hereditary link. If autoimmune diseases in general run in your family, you are at a higher risk of developing one yourself.

    How can I know for sure if I have this disease?

    Your doctor will perform a simple blood test that will be able to tell if your body has the right amount of thyroid hormones. This test measures the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) to find out if the levels are in the normal range. The range is set by your doctor and should be discussed with you. Work with your doctor to figure out what level is right for you. There are other available tests that your doctor may choose to do if need be, such as a blood test to measure the level of “active thyroid hormone” or Free T4 and a scan (picture) to look at the thyroid.

    What is the treatment for this disease?

    Hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is treated with thyroid hormone replacement. A small pill taken once a day should be able to keep the thyroid hormone levels normal. This medicine will, in most cases, need to be taken for the rest of the patient's life. When trying to figure out the amount of hormone you need, you may have to return to your doctor several times for blood tests to guide adjustments in the medicine dose. It is important that the dose be right for you. A yearly visit to your doctor will help keep your levels normal and help you stay healthy overall. Be aware of the symptoms. If you note any changes or the return of symptoms, return to your doctor to see if you need to have your medicine dosage adjusted.

    What would happen without medication to regulate my thyroid function?

    If left untreated, hyporthyroidism can cause further problems, including changes in menstrual cycles, prevention of ovulation, and an increased risk of miscarriage. Symptoms such as fatigue, depression and constipation, may progress and there can be other serious consequences, including heart failure. It is also important to know that too much thyroid replacement hormone can mimic the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. This is a condition that happens when there is too much thyroid hormone. These symptoms include insomnia, irritability, weight loss without dieting, heat sensitivity, increased perspiration, thinning of your skin, fine or brittle hair, muscular weakness, eye changes, lighter menstrual flow, rapid heart beat and shaky hands.

    What happens if I have this disease and I get pregnant?

    It is important to get checked out by your doctor more often if you are pregnant. Inadequately treated thyroid problems can affect a growing baby, and the thyroid replacement needs of pregnant women often change. A doctor can help you figure out your changing medicine needs.

    For More Information . . .

    You can find out more information about Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and hyporthyroidism by contacting the National Women's Health Information Center at 1-800-994-9662 or the following organizations:

    National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive Diseases and Kidney Diseases

    Phone: (301) 496-3583

    Internet Address: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/

    Thyroid Foundation of America

    Phone: (800) 832-8321

    Email: info@tsh.org

    Internet Address: http://www.tsh.org/

    The American Thyroid Association

    Email: admin@thyroid.org

    Internet Address: http://www.thyroid.org

    This FAQ was reviewed by Dr. David Cooper, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Division of Endocrinology.

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    In 1912 (Fig. 8-1) Hashimoto described four patients with a chronic disorder of the thyroid, which he termed struma lymphomatosa. The thyroid glands of these patients were characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration, fibrosis, parenchymal atrophy, and an eosinophilic change in some of the acinar cells.(1) Clinical and pathologic studies of this disease have appeared frequently since Hashimoto's original description. The disease has been called Hashimoto's thyroiditis, chronic thyroiditis, lymphocytic thyroiditis, lymphadenoid goiter, and recently autoimmune thyroiditis. Classically, the disease occurs as a painless, diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland in a young or middle-aged woman. It is often associated with hypothyroidism. The disease was thought to be uncommon for many years, and the diagnosis was usually made by the surgeon at the time of operation or by the pathologist after thyroidectomy. The increasing use of the needle biopsy and serologic tests for antibodies have led to much more frequent recognition, and there is reason to believe that it may be increasing in frequency.(2) It is now one of the most common thyroid disorders.

    Figure 1. Dr. Hakaru Hashimoto

    The first indication of an immunologic abnormality in this disease was an elevation of the plasma gamma globulin fraction detected by Fromm et al.(3) This finding, together with abnormalities in serum flocculation test results(4) indicated that the disease might be related to a long-continued autoimmune reaction. Rose and Witebsky(5) showed that immunization of rabbits with extracts of rabbit thyroids produced histologic changes in the thyroid glands resembling those seen in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. They also found antithyroglobulin antibodies in the blood of the animals. Subsequently, Roitt et al.(6) observed that a precipitate formed when an extract of human thyroid gland was added to serum from a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thus, it appeared that the serum contained antibodies to a constituent of the human thyroid and that these antibodies might be responsible for the disease process. These original observations led directly to entirely new concepts of the causation of disease by autoimmunization.

    Pathology

    The goiter is generally symmetrical, often with a conspicuous pyramidal lobe. Grossly, the tissue involved by Hashimoto's thyroiditis is pinkish-tan to frankly yellowish and tends to have a rubbery firmness. The capsular surface is gently lobulated and non-adherent to peri-thyroid structures. Microscopically, there is a diffuse process consisting of a combination of epithelial cell destruction, lymphoid cellular infiltration, and fibrosis. The thyroid cells tend to be slightly larger and assume an acidophilic staining character; they are then called Hurthle or Askanazy cells and are packed with mitochondria. The follicular spaces shrink, and colloid is absent or sparse. Fibrosis may be completely absent or present in degrees ranging from slight to moderate; it may be severe, as observed in subacute or Riedel's thyroiditis. Foreign body giant cells and granulomas are not features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, in contrast to subacute thyroiditis. In children, oxyphilia and fibrosis are less prominent, and hyperplasia of epithelial cells may be marked. Deposits of dense material representing IgG are found along the basement membrane on electron microscopy (Fig. 8-2).

    Figure 2. Electron microscopy image of thyroid tissue from a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, showing electron dense deposits of IgG and TG along the basement membrane of follicular cells.

    Within the follicles may be seen clusters of macrophage-like cells. The lymphoid infiltration in the interstitial tissue is accompanied by actual follicles and germinal centers (Fig. 8-3, below). Plasma cells are prominent. Totterman has studied the characteristics of the lymphocytes in the thyroid and reports that they are made up of equal proportions of T and B cells.(7) Most infiltrating T cells have alpha/beta T cell receptors. Gamma/delta T cells are rare(8), although their proportion in intrathyroidal lymphocytes is higher than that in peripheral lymphocytes(9). CD4+CD8+ cells and CD3lo-TCRalpha/beta-lo/CD4-CD8- cells also are present in the infiltrate in the thyroid(9). Infiltrating T cells are considered to be a highly restricted population, based on the study of T cell receptor V alpha(10) and beta(11) gene expression. Heuer et al. studied cytokine mRNA expression in intrathyroidal T cells and found increased expression of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and CD25, which are Th1-related cytokines(12) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroglobulin-binding lymphocytes were increased in percentage relative to their occurrence in blood.

    Figure 3. Pathology of

  • Anonymous
    3 years ago

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    Source(s): Cure Hypothyroids http://sparkindl.info/HypothyroidismRelief
  • 1 decade ago

    Hashimoto Hakaru in 1912

  • 1 decade ago

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. It is named after the first doctor who described this condition, Dr. Hakaru Hashimoto, in 1912.

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