kevin asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

英文新聞翻譯和整理

這是本文,我要中文翻譯!

我不要網路翻譯機的翻譯喔!

BOSTON) — A Massachusetts study suggests that restaurant smoking bans may play a big role in persuading teens not to become smokers. Youths who lived in towns with strict bans were 40 percent less likely to become regular smokers than those in communities with no bans or weak ones, the researchers reported in the May issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine.

The findings back up the idea that smoking bans discourage tobacco use in teens by sending the message that smoking is frowned upon in the community, as well as simply by reducing their exposure to smokers in public places, said Dr. Michael Siegel, of Boston University School of Public Health, and the study's lead author.

When kids grow up in an environment where they don't see smoking, they are going to think it's not socially acceptable," he said. "If they perceive a lot of other people are smoking, they think it's the norm."

Update:

Siegel and his colleagues tracked 2,791 children between ages 12 and 17 who lived throughout Massachusetts. There were no statewide restrictions when the study began in 2001 but about 100 cities and towns had enacted a hodgepodge of laws restricting smoking in workplaces, bars or restaurants.

Update 2:

The teens were followed for four years to see how many tried smoking and how many eventually became smokers.

Overall, about 9 percent became smokers — defined as smoking more than 100 cigarettes.

Update 3:

In towns without bans or where smoking was restricted to a designated area, that rate was nearly 10 percent. But in places with tough bans prohibiting smoking in restaurants, just under 8 percent of the teens became smokers.

Update 4:

The study found that having a smoker as a parent or a close friend was a factor in predicting whether children experiment with cigarettes. But strong bans had a bigger influence on whether smoking grew into a habit, reducing their chances of becoming smokers by 40 percent.

Update 5:

"There is really no other smoking intervention program that could cut almost in half the rate of smoking," Siegel said.

Age was also a factor. Smoking bans had a greater effect on younger teens than on older teens.

Update 6:

The researchers said it's not clear whether strong bans would have the same effect in other states since local towns adopted their restrictions as part of an aggressive anti-smoking campaign throughout the state.

Update 7:

A statewide workplace smoking ban that included restaurants went into effect in mid-2004. Since then, high school smoking rates in Massachusetts have continued to decline, from about 21 percent of students in 2005 to about 18 percent in 2007.

Update 8:

Many restaurant owners fought the ban, saying it could drive away diners, according to Janine Harrod, director of government affairs for the Massachusetts Restaurant Association, which represents 2,000 restaurant owners.

Update 9:

While some restaurants were hurt initially, the effects have eased over time since the ban applies to everyone, she said.

Bill Phelps, a spokesman for Altria, parent company of cigarette-maker Philip Morris USA, said the study shows that the reasons teens take up smoking are complex.

Update 10:

"There is no single reason why young people engage in risky behaviors like smoking," he said. "We believe that there should be a multifaceted approach to address youth smoking."

Update 11:

At least 23 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico require most public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars, to be smoke free, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures.

Update 12:

Another nine states ban smoking in workplaces but have various exemptions for restaurants or bars.

Update 13:

"We already have more than enough evidence why we should pass these smoke-free laws, but certainly this study should help push them along," said Danny McGoldick of the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids.

2 Answers

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    波士頓) — 馬薩諸塞研究建議 餐館抽煙的禁令充當一個大角色 也許能說服青少年們不會成為吸煙者。青年們誰居住在鎮上有嚴密的禁令比這些社區沒有禁令或不充分的禁令的有很可能的少了40%成習慣性的吸煙者, 研究員在5月問題報告過小兒科和青少年醫學檔案。

    研究的結果支持計劃,抽煙的禁令可勸阻煙草使用在青少年們用轉達消息在社區裡是不可以抽煙的, 不但完全地減少他們暴露在公共場所吸煙, 波士頓公共衛生大學學校和研究的主要作者邁克爾・Siegel 博士說。

    當孩子在成長中他們不看到抽煙的環境裡, 他們會認為社會上是不可抽煙的, "他說。"如果他們察覺很多人在抽煙, 他們認為這是正常。

    ·2008-05-06 19:23:10 補充

    Siegel 和他的同事跟蹤了2, 791 個孩子在年齡12 和17 之間誰居住遍及馬薩諸塞。那裡沒有全州限制 在2001年研究約100 個城市和鎮有一團糟的法律制定在工作場所、酒吧或餐館抽煙。

    ·2008-05-06 19:23:27 補充

    青少年們跟隨了四年看了多少試圖抽煙而最後多少變成吸煙者。

    總之, 大約9% 成為吸煙者- 被定義作為抽煙超過100 根的香煙。

    ·2008-05-06 19:23:44 補充

    在鎮上沒有禁令或抽煙被限於一個選定的區域的地方, 那比率是幾乎接近10% 。但在地方以嚴格的禁止在餐館抽煙裡, 就只有8 %以下的青少年們成習慣性的吸煙者。

    ·2008-05-06 19:24:06補充

    研究者發現因為有父母或一位親密的朋友是吸煙者 這因素預料孩子們會進行抽煙試驗。但是嚴格的禁令有更大的影響到是否增加抽煙習性裡, 減少他們變成吸煙者的機會有40% 。

    ·2008-05-06 19:24:34 補充

    "在那裡是沒有其它抽煙干預的節目可以切斷幾乎一半的抽煙比率," Siegel 說。

    年齡也是因素。抽煙的禁令有一個更好的影響力在更年輕青少年們比年長的青少年們好 。

    ·2008-05-06 19:24:49 補充

    研究員說它不是明確嚴密的禁令是否在其它國家會有同樣影響 自地方鎮採取了他們的限制有一部分挑釁的反抽煙遍佈整個國家

    ·2008-05-06 19:25:09 補充

    在2004年中旬全國家抽煙的禁令的影響從工作場所進入餐館 。從那以後, 在馬薩諸塞的高中生抽煙比率有繼續下降, 約21 %在2005 年到約18%在2007年學生們抽煙的比率。

    ·2008-05-06 19:25:35 補充

    許多餐館老闆們與反對抽煙禁令, 說它會趕走去吃飯的客人, 根據Janine Harrod, 政府事務的主任為馬薩諸塞餐館協會, 代表2,000 位餐館老闆。

    ·2008-05-06 19:25:49 補充

    當開始有一些餐館受損, 這些受損影響是要隨大家都採用禁令才會減輕的, 她說。

    Bill ・Phelps, Altria 的一位發言人, 總公司香煙製作商Philip Morris 美國, 說研究表示, 青少年們接受抽煙是由各種原因所構成的。

    ·2008-05-06 19:26:09 補充

    "是沒有理由為什麼青年人會參與危險的抽煙行為," 他說。"我們相信 那裡應該是一種multifaceted 的方法對付青年時期抽煙。"

    ·2008-05-06 19:26:22 補充

    至少23 個國家、哥倫比亞特區和波多里哥任意要求多數公共場所和工作場所, 包括餐館和酒吧, 是不能抽煙, 根據國家議會全國會議。

    ·2008-05-06 19:26:47 補充

    另外九個狀態禁令抽煙在工作場所 但有各種各樣的免除給予為餐館或酒吧。

    ·2008-05-06 19:26:58 補充

    "我們已經有足夠的證據更 為什麼我們能通過這些禁煙的法律, 但這項研究應該向前促進推動他們," Danny McGoldick說-活動為煙草自由孩子。

  • Anonymous
    6 years ago
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