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what is the history of Chile?
The country Chile
- Anonymous1 decade agoFavorite Answer
summary history of Chile
When the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia arrived in Chile in 1542 and founded Santiago, who until this day remains as capital city, there were people in the country with various organizations and systems of life that were suitable to the climate and geography of their habitat. Following the line from north to south, these primitive people gathered in the following groups:
-- Aymaras: altiplánico people with an economy based on agriculture and grazing.
-- Atacameños: one of the most developed towns in the north, next to the Diaguita. It was established especially in the creeks cordilleranas located between Arica and San Pedro de Atacama.
-- Change: nomadic fishermen who travelled up the coast from Arica Copiapo.
-- Diaguitas: cultivated the art of pottery and inhabited valleys between Santiago and Copiapo.
-- Incas: despite the fact that the Inca Empire is what binds almost exclusively with Peru, this village had a strong presence in Chile since 1470, when it expanded its territories to the south of the Maule river, that expansion did significantly influence development of indigenous peoples who inhabited those lands.
-- Mapuches (or Araucanos): these great warriors are undoubtedly the indigenous people who put greater resistance to the arrival of the Spaniards in the Americas. Its inhabitants lived in the territory between the rivers and Toltén Itata. They were mainly farmers and fell into picunche, Mapuche and Huilliche.
-- Canoeros: nomadic fishermen and gatherers who moved to the islands of the archipelago of western Patagonia. It is divided into three groups: those Chonos, Kawéskar and Yamanas.
-- Patagones: nomadic hunters and gatherers, were installed on the pampa estepárica. It fell into the aónikenk and selk nam.
-- Polynesian: people who lived in Easter Island.
The Conquest (1536-1599)
In 1536, the Spanish conquistador Diego de Almagro went to the current capital of Chile, Santiago, to begin the conquest of Chile, but the difficult journey and the scarcity of gold did so promptly return to Peru. Six years later, another Spanish, Pedro de Valdivia, began the final conquest to establish Santiago in 1542. During the early years, the Spaniards divided land, organized the Indians and were devoted to bring as many settlers as possible to consolidate its presence in this new territory. However, as we move towards the far south, the Spaniards were found with the Mapuches or Araucanos, a village warrior who opposed strong resistance to Spanish rule. For a long time, Indians and Iberian was disputed centimeter centimetre to the territory in tough battles. This situation came to an end in 1599, when the natives were able to destroy all foundations Spanish south of Concepcion (current Eighth Region). The great bravery and tenacity of the Mapuche they meant the Spaniards great sacrifices and efforts to recover these territories. In fact, only able to restore its dominance in the region after 300 years of constant struggles and battles. This later became known as the War of Arauco.
The Cologne (1600-1810)
Due to the strong resistance of the Mapuche people, mainly Spaniards decided to settle in the territory between what we now know as Copiapo (Region III) and Concepcion (Region VIII). There were devoted to agriculture activities and exploitation of mineral deposits. The only established cities such as during the seventeenth century and half of the eighteenth century were Santiago, La Serena and Concepcion. Later, with the population increase, new urban centers were founded as Copiapo, Rancagua, Talca and Curicó. The settlement of most residents in these areas facilitated the realization of significant progress in the areas of education and culture. Beyond the distance, language differences, inclement weather and lack of resources, the biggest problem that faced the Spaniards in Chilean territory was the incessant Mapuche resistance, which fed the 300-year-long War of Arauco. During the Cologne, this conflict, which had been fairly handled by Hispanics, became a real threat to the stability of the Spanish Crown in our country. Only in 1882 the Army finally managed to occupy the territory controlled by araucanos.
The Independence (1810-1823)
In the early nineteenth century, events like the French Revolution and the Independence of the United States increased independence sentiments of many Americans. In the case of Chile, after Napoleon's invasion of Spain and the fall of King Ferdinand VII, in 1810, the Creoles in Santiago established a National Board of Government to lead the Cologne on behalf of the monarch. This was seen as a rebellion and began a struggle between Creoles and the Army sent from the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. After numerous battles, in 1818 proclaimed National Independence Party and was appointed as Director Bernardo O'Higgins Supreme country.
Consolidation of the Republic (1823-1861)
After a long period of anarchy, was established over 30 years, a republican regime, unitary, presidential and authoritarian. Thus, there was an end to the warlords and maintain a certain political and social stability. There was also a commercial opening to the outside world and increased exploitation of minerals, mainly copper and silver. In the cultural influence of European ideas through the cultivation of the letters. In 1842 supporting the University of Chile in 1851 and the railway is inaugurated Copiapo to Caldera. At that time, also encouraged the arrival of German settlers south of the country.
The Liberal Republic (1861-1891)
During this period, Chile managed to significantly improve their economic situation due to the exploitation of important mineral deposits of silver, copper and nitrate in the north. However, this economic boom brought with it a number of problems with Peru and Bolivia, since these countries watched with great interest the economic attractiveness of the area. This rivalry resulted in 1879 in the Pacific War, in which Chile won. This brings the country was consolidated as a military power and the like saltpetre largest producer of natural world, large chemical use in both world wars. Thanks to this boom came a new ruling class, enriched by mining, and began a series of advances in the various sectors of national economy. The great changes that occurred in the country throughout this period generated in the new classes a spirit most influential liberal who opposed the presidential type of government that governed until then. That was the genesis of a social and political conflict that culminated in the Revolution of 1891, after which he was overthrown President José Manuel Balmaceda and instituted a system of parliamentary government.
The Parlamentarismo (1891-1925)
With this new system of government, starting with President Jorge Montt, Prime Representative lost virtually all power, which happened at the hands of Parliament, formed by the ruling class, which generated a great political turmoil, social and economic . At the beginning of last century, the crisis came to such an extent that the working class began to demand changes to improve their quality of life and in 1909, was the first trade union organization in the country. In 1920 he was elected President Arturo Alessandri-who ruled until 1925 - which was seen as a triumph of the middle class. Meanwhile, the saltpetre remained the mainstay of the Chilean economy. The situation remained until Germany invented saltpetre synthetic during the First World War. In 1925 a new Constitution was promulgated, which ended with the parliamentary system and further strengthen the power of the President.
The Democratic Republic (1925-2006)
The new reforms and the emergence and consolidation of new social groups made between 1925 and 1932, creating some political and social instability, marked by various military interventions. Only in 1932, with the reelection of Alessandri, it was possible return to constitutionality. Since that date were emerging more strongly political alliances and made a series of social reforms on labor laws such as insurance, health, education and retirement. In economic development, it is modeled in which the state fulfilled a key role. One example was the creation of the Development Corporation (Corfo) as a body responsible for industrial development.
In 1964 he assumed the presidency Eduardo Frei Montalva, a militant of the Christian Democrats who, under the slogan "revolution in freedom" in Chile began an era marked by political Catholic social teaching, he called to bring economic progress to most dispossessed sectors. Frei began one of the most significant transformations in the economic history of the country to implement agrarian reform, whose implementation would be the germ of a political crisis later. It's the same time when the Soviet Union consolidated its political system and initiates an expansion ideology which has its highest expression in supporting economic, military and political regime of Fidel Castro in Cuba. These ideologies also come to Chile and to strengthen the parliamentary left, which comes into power in 1970 with Salvador Allende, who, despite not having won the election by an absolute majority, go to La Moneda after a plenary session of Congress will hand over command of the nation.
Allende and the Popular Unity initiated a unique experience in americas America, the estatizar productive sources who were in private hands and to implement the Soviet socio-economic model, including pricing and rationing of basic inputs. At that level, highlights the nationalization of the copper industry that holds up the economy these days and that for the first time, went to Chilean hands. However, these dramatic social changes, coupled with the emergence of radical left more radical groups advocating the "armed path toward socialism", generated a climate of greatSource(s): I hope you will serve !
- Anonymous5 years ago
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