勁延 asked in 教育與參考考試 · 1 decade ago

經濟的Edgeworth Box分析

想請問以下這一個題目的答案,不是翻譯唷~

Consider an economy with two people, George and Mary, who consume two commodities, bread and water. Suppose that, due to a drought, the authorities decide to allocate exactly half available water to each person.

In order to prevent person from “exploiting” the other, neither person may trade away any water to the other in exchange for more bread. Set up an Edgeworth Box to depict this situation and explain why it is unlikely to be Pareto efficient?

有勞各位高手解答了

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  • 1 decade ago
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    http://www.wretch.cc/album/show.php?i=bearbearlin&...

    說明: Edgeworth箱型圖 -

    圖中, Og和Om分別是George和Mary的原點。假定滿足Pareto Efficiency的Contract Curve是OgCDOm這條曲線。

    因題目已限定,兩人個分一半的水,假定原賦點是在E,此時兩人擁有的水量相同,i.e.,OgA=OmB。若兩人可自由交易,那麼互惠區是圖中的斜線。i.e.,若可由E點移動到斜線區中的某一點,那麼兩人效用都可以提高。或者:由E到D,George的效用增加,但Mary的效用不變。或者:由E到C,George的效用不變,但Mary的效用增加。以上這些情況都叫做Pareto Improvement,不是Pareto Effieiency。Pareto Effieiency指的是由C至D或者由D至C,其中一人效用增加,另一人效用必減少的情況。

    但因為限定兩人不能拿水來交換麵包,i.e.,兩人若要交易,僅能在AB這條水平的虛線上進行交易。若要交易,僅能拿麵包彼此互換,但除非麵包是異質的,否則這樣沒有意義。或者,有人願意”奉獻”進行無償交易,例如:Mary自動送了一些麵包給George,使得E點移到F點,如此以來,George的效用提高了,但Mary的效用必定減少。但這種情形不太可能,因為人是自利的。

    所以除非原賦點E”碰巧”是兩人無異曲線的切點,使得兩人的MRS相等,那麼原賦點E就滿足Pareto Efficiency。但這樣的機會小,所以我們說,在這種情況下,不太可能達到Pareto Efficiency。(題目是說it is unlikely,而不是說it is impossible)

    Source(s): MYSELF
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