The Bauhaus movement was a modernist philosophy based on a series of art schools, starting with the Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimer, and after politics forced moves first to Dessau then to Berlin, culminating in the relocation of most of the staff to Illinois.
Among the amazing teachers they had were Wassily Kandinsky (who probably invented Abstract Art, as opposed to Picasso who consistently used figurative art while often taking an abstract approach to it) Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger (who ironically enough began his career as an American Cartoonist),Oskar Schlemmer and Josef Albers (who these days is more influential than well-known. You will see an occasional Homage to the Square in a museum -- he painted literally thousands of them-- but his real importance these days is as teacher of painters like Alex Katz, and Anni Albers, who was probably the greatest textile designer of the last century.
Modernism began with the embrace of realism. This was something Zola, Courbet and the Impressionists were SLAMMED for doing. Formalism always played a role in European art of the modern era, but after the Bauhaus Modernism was really considered to be sleek unadorned architecture and design, and abstract color fields in painting.
Steve Jobs's computers all owe a lot to the Bauhaus.