need help asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

[英文]中文翻英文 (很急拜託!!)

第一種意義指的是一種過程,屬於獨立抽象的名詞,即civilized和cultivated,主要描述十八世紀的思想和美學的過程。第二種意義是人類歷史演變後發展出的civilzation,屬於獨立的名詞,主要表示一個群體特殊的生活方式。第三種意義泛指一切藝術人文,譬如文學、音樂、電影及一切藝術活動,從第一種意義衍生而來,從美學的發展過程變成具體的藝術作品和活動。

在Herder以前culture主要運用於歷史上,指的是「人類自我發展的歷史」,尤其是歐洲文化的發展,將歐洲文化視為全球的主流文化。Herder批判以前的culture含義,認為不該把culture視為歐洲文化的高度發展。

Herder認為culture是複數的,不單指特定國家的文化發展,culture應該是每個國家的不同文化,而且從國家內部變化而成。以浪漫主義為例,culture相對於civilization,並非指主流文化,而是國家的傳統文化。

十九世紀後civilization指的是精神層面,culture指的是物質層面,culture具有豐富的意義,原本也包含精神層面的意義,然而表示「文化」的名詞意義消失了,剩下形容詞的意義,culture的形容詞具有「禮節」和「品味」的意思,十九世紀後人們普遍使用此定義。現代culture被當作獨立名詞使用時,才具有「文化」的意思,但culture的形容詞定義普遍使用於社會中。

有兩方面的批判,首先Arnold批判culture是使用於菁英文化的字,在狹義上文化指的是菁英文化,但在廣義上而言,大眾文化也是文化的一部份。另一方面,culture-vulture也透露出敵意,主要和世界大戰後產生的反德情緒有關。

綜觀兩者的批判,主要是high art 和 popular art的差異,由於culture的多元意義,culture字詞的演變就是社會發展的改變。

Update:

不要用翻譯軟體直譯

因為文法出現一堆錯誤

希望有高手能幫幫我

謝謝^^

2 Answers

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  • 允聖
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    What the first meaning is mentioned is a kind of process, belong to independent abstract word, namely civilized and cultivated, mainly describe thought for 18 centuries and esthetics of process.The second meaning is the civilzation that mankind's history develops after turning into, belong to independent word and mainly indicate a life style with special community.The third meaning indicates generally all art humanities, like literature, music, movie and all art activities, developed from the first meaning, become concrete art work and activity from the development process of esthetics.

    The culture mainly makes use of on the history before Herder and what to point is particularly "the history that the mankind developed on their own", is the development of European culture and treated European culture as global essential culture.Herder criticizes the culture meaning in past and thinking shouldn't treat culture as cultural height in Europe to develop.

    Herder thinks that the culture is a plural of and not only point cultural development of particular nation and the culture should be different culture of each nation, and change and become from the national inner part.Take romantic doctrine as an example, the culture isn't more opposite than civilization, do point essential culture, but national traditional culture.

    2008-05-05 01:47:11 補充:

    What civilization is mentioned is a spirit level after 19th century and what culture points is a material level and the culture has abundant meaning and originally also includes the meaning of spirit level,

    2008-05-05 01:47:57 補充:

    however indicates that the word meaning of "culture" disappeared and leave the meaning of adjective and the

    2008-05-05 01:48:12 補充:

    culture adjective has the meanings of"etiquette" and"tasty" andx the ability contained the meanings of "culture", but the culture adjective defined universal usage in society.

    2008-05-05 01:48:29 補充:

    There is the judgment of both side, the Arnold judgment culture is an usage at the word of elite culture first and turn what to point in the narrow sense preceding context is elite culture, but on the broad sense and speech,

    2008-05-05 01:48:42 補充:

    the public's culture is also cultural a part.On the other hand, culture-vulture also reveals hostility,

    2008-05-05 01:48:46 補充:

    main with world war behind produce of anti- and virtuous emotion relevant.

    The judgment taking a comprehensive view of both is mainly the difference of high art and popular art, due to the culture diverse meaning, the turning into of culture word phrase is the change of social development.

    Source(s): 讓你久等了
  • 1 decade ago

    What the first kind of significance refers to is one kind of process, belongs to the independent abstract noun, namely civilized and cultivated, mainly describe the 18th century thought and esthetics process. Civilzation which after the second kind of significance is the human history evolves, develops, belongs to the independent noun, mainly expresses a community special life style. The third kind of significance generalizes the artistic humanities, for example the literature, music, the movie and all artistic activity, grow from the first kind of significance come, turns the concrete artistic work and the activity from esthetics developing process.

    In Herder before culture mainly utilizes in the history, what refers to is “the human self-development history”, in particular the European culture's development, the European culture will regard as global the mainstream culture. Herder criticizes the beforehand culture meaning, thought that should not regard as culture the European culture the high development.

    Herder thought that culture is the plural number, not merely refers to specific national the cultural development, culture should be each national different culture, moreover becomes from the national interior change. Take the romanticism as the example, culture is opposite in civilization, refers to the mainstream culture by no means that but is the national traditional culture.

    after 19th century, what civilization refers to is the energetic stratification plane, what culture refers to is the material stratification plane, culture has the rich significance, also contains the energetic stratification plane originally the significance, however expressed “culture” the noun significance has vanished, is left over the adjective the significance,

    2008-04-30 00:35:49 補充:

    Modern culture when treats as the independent term use, only then has “the culture” meaning, but culture adjective definition universal use in society.

    Two aspect's critique, first Arnold criticizes culture is uses Yu Jingying the culture the character,

    2008-04-30 00:36:12 補充:

    what the culture refers to in the narrow sense is the cyanine UK culture, but says on generalized, the mass culture is also a cultural part. On the other hand, culture-vulture also discloses the hostility, after main and world war, produces the counter-German mood concerns.

    2008-04-30 00:36:27 補充:

    The comprehensive survey both's critique, is mainly high art and the popular art difference, as a result of the culture multi-dimensional significance, the culture character word's evolution is the social development change.

    Source(s): me, 同上, 同上, 同上
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