請各位大大幫我翻譯這篇要翻成英文

自行車在歐美等先進國家被作為健身休閒器材;但在開發中國家如中國大陸或印度則是當地人民的主要生財及交通工具。因此在歐美因高齡化的來臨,自行車的替代品為電動自行車;但在開發中國家自行車的替代品便可能是同為運輸工具的機車。

(三)供應商議價力量方面

隨著科技進步與經濟發展,自行車在生產方面的專業分工日趨細密,因而企業間的分工合作也顯得越來越重要,政府有鑑於此,於1984年成立中衛制度推動小組,希望把中心工廠和衛星工廠間加以垂直整合,藉此降低生產成本,提昇產業競爭力,所以就自行車產業而言,除島野變速器因握有種種優勢(因客戶指明高單價車需使用該品牌零件)外,零件供應商的議價力量不大,有時遇匯率有巨幅波動時,甚至需要與成車廠共同分攤部份的匯率損失。

(四)客戶議價力量

近年來國外的客戶議價能力有愈來愈強的趨勢,因為台灣的自行車零件廠除交零件給本國的成車廠外,亦自行外銷零件給國外的成車廠,所以有一些精明的國外買者是一面手拿著零組件廠報價單,一面與成車廠議價。另一方面,國內的成車業者業會因搶單而削價競爭,這是造成近年來平均單價下降的原因之一。

(五)與現有競爭對手競爭方面

1995~1997年台灣自行車前三十名出口量廠商的市場佔有率中連續三年出口數量維持在前三十名的整車廠商只有23家,而依市場佔有率之變化,相對於廠商家數也有不同的分佈情形。

1995年至1997年出口前三十名的整車廠,市場佔有率介於0.73﹪至1﹪之間的家數分佈以1996年11家最多,而該年前三十名的出口市場佔有率約佔總出口的64.51﹪。出口市場佔有率分佈符合金字塔原理,佔有率愈高的家數越少;而1995年與1997年前三十大的出口市場佔有率分佈在1﹪至2﹪間的家數最多,分別為16家與12家。前三十名中市場佔有率愈小者被取代的機率愈高,而除前五名的變化較小外,其餘廠商出口排名的起伏變化大,例如肯友公司在1995年為前十四大廠商,1996年晉入前八名廠商,到1997年則超越美利達公司成為第二大出口廠商。

由此可發現,國內自行車整車廠間外銷競爭能力差距頗大,主要因有自創品牌業者已在國際市場上得到消費者接納及肯定,加上大廠在車型的創新、設計及行銷策略方面亦優於一般小廠。由出口數量的市場佔有率分佈發現,國內的自行車產業的確有大廠集中的趨勢,也就是說廠商規模愈大,愈具國際競爭優勢,出口數量也愈見提昇。

1 Answer

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  • Leo
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    Bicycle are used as recreational or exercise equipment in developed counties such as European or US, but are used as main money maker or transportation by local people in under developed countries like China or India. As aging generation become large population in Europe and US, bicycle was replaced by electro-scooters; while in under developing countries, the replacement of bicycle will be more or less become motorcycle as means of transportation.

    (三)Supplier chain cost consideration

    Followed closely with the technology improvements and economy developments, bicycle manufacturing become more and more sophisticate than ever, the joint efforts and cooperation between each manufacturers become more and more critically important. Just because of this trend, our Government established a team to promote host and satellite system; in which for hoping vertically integrate host manufacturing center together with the satellite factories; so as to reduce production cost and improve competition ability. For bicycle industry, except Shimano that holds upscale advantage (Due to customer recognize that higher grade of bicycle should only use Shimano branded components), component supplier does not have too much power to negotiate price, and some times when it was hit by big exchange rate deficit, the component supplier even need to share the exchange rate loss with the bicycle assembler.

    (四)Customer cost consideration

    Recently, the foreign buyers are getting stronger in price negotiation, it is because Taiwanese bicycle component supplier make delivery not only to the domestic bicycle assembly factories, but also export to foreign assemblers, so there are some smart foreign buyers holding the quotation from components supplier in one hand and then; negotiate the price with the local bicycle assembly factory. In the mean time, the local bicycle assembly factories are competing each others with cutting edge prices, this is one of the reasons that causing average unit price drop.

    2008-04-29 16:45:25 補充:

    5. The competitor and competition

    Out of top 30 Taiwan's bicycle exporting factories, there are only 23 bicycle manufacturing factories remain top 30 list consecutively for 3 years in market share between 1995~1997,

    2008-04-29 16:45:56 補充:

    in market share between 1995~1997, and based on the change of the market share, number of factories shown different distribution also.

    2008-04-29 16:49:23 補充:

    In between 1995 and 1997 among the top 30 exporting factories, there are 11 factories has 0.73%~1% market share in 1996 and this is the highest number of them, and in that same year, the exporting market share of these top 30 factories weights roughly around 64.5% of the total export amount.

    2008-04-29 16:50:11 補充:

    The exporting market share matches the pyramid theory, which is higher marketing share, less number of companies; in 1995 and 1997; the number of companies who has between 1% to 2% market share hits highest number at 16 and 12 respectively.

    2008-04-29 16:50:32 補充:

    Among these top 30, lower market share will have higher tendency to be replaced. Factories export ranking has much bigger change except for the top 5 which is relatively stable in market share.

    2008-04-29 16:51:08 補充:

    Take Ramiko for instance, they are top 14 player in 1995, becomes top 8 in 1996, and by the year 1997; Ramiko over turn Merida and become second largest export company.

    2008-04-29 16:51:36 補充:

    Judging from this, we can see there's big difference in competition ability between local bicycle assembly factories, the main reasons lies on self branded manufacturer had been well received and recognized by the consumers in the international market,

    2008-04-29 16:52:36 補充:

    plus the big company has innovative design in their models and sales strategy are far netter than smaller factories. As judging from the export market share distribution,

    2008-04-29 16:52:53 補充:

    local bicycle industry has a tendency of grouping toward big manufacturer, which is to say; the lager become larger, and with better international competition advantage, the number of exporting bicycles are growing higher too.

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