They would have to be tested.
The Alpha-1 Foundation is dedicated to promoting worldwide awareness of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and encourages testing for the disorder among population groups at high risk for Alpha-1. Early diagnosis and adherence to the proper health management plan are important elements to attaining an optimal quality of life.
The World Health Organization (WHO), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), and the Alpha-1 Foundation’s Medical and Scientific Advisory Committee (MASAC) recommend that individuals diagnosed with the following diseases should be tested for Alpha-1:
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Asthma that is incompletely reversible after aggressive treatment
Chronic liver disease
Unexplained liver disease in infants and children
The skin disease panniculitis
Inheriting Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency :
families in an autosomal codominant pattern. Codominant inheritance means that two different variants of the gene (alleles) may be expressed, and both versions contribute to the genetic trait.
The M gene is the most common allele of the alpha-1 gene. It produces normal levels of the alpha-1 antitrypsin protein.
The Z gene is the most common variant of the gene. It causes alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. The S allele is another, less common variant that causes ATTD.
If a person inherits one M gene and one Z gene or one S gene ('type PiMZ' or 'type PiMS'), that person is a carrier of the disorder. While such a person may not have normal levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin, there should be enough to protect the lungs. However, carriers with the MZ alleles have an increased risk for lung disease, particularly if they smoke.
A person who inherits the Z gene from each parent is called 'type PiZZ.' This person has very low alpha-1 antitrypsin levels, allowing elastase - an enzyme especially of pancreatic juice that digests elastin - to damage the lungs. A person who inherits an altered version called S and Z is also likely to develop AATD.
Riss-Hepatitis C Objectives, Yahoo Groups