Conservatives, technically, are people who favor a conservative point of view on social issues. They typically are pro-life, pro-capital punishment (don't ask me how that works), "pro-marriage" (against gay marriage), pro-gun, etc. Also, you generally associate conservatives with republicans, who favor a pro-business, low-tax point of view.
Liberals are the opposite of conservatives on social issues: pro-choice, against death penalty (again, don't ask me how that works), okay with gay marriage or at least civil unions, pro-gun control, etc. You associate them with democrats, who favor more of a pro-individual, pro-government programs view.
But liberalism and conservatism have little (in theory) to do with more political issues.