julia asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago



What is tourism?

World destinations

Tour operators

Tourist motivations

Travel agencies

Transport in tourism


Marketing and promotion

The airline industry

Holidays with a difference

Reservations and sales

Airport departures

1 Answer

  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    On the cargo side too there will be two types of niche carrier. The largest will be the integrators such as DHL, UPS, Fedex and others, among whom consolidation will continue as smaller regional integrators are bought out or collapse. The second group will be the specialist all-cargo airline, such as Cargolux, who operate both scheduled and charter flights, and those airlines that operate cargo flights for network carriers on a wet lease basis (for more details on air cargo, see Doganis 2002).

    The future shape of the airline industry in each major region or continent is summarised in Table 9.3. The timescale is uncertain. The shape suggested is most likely to emerge first within Europe and the United States, possibly before 2010. Elsewhere, in South-East Asia, China or Latin American, it will take longer because of regulatory and institutional barriers to change and in particular, because of political opposition to the abandonment of the concept of the national flag carrier. The process of consolidation and changing industry structure will be accelerated during the next cyclical downturn. Change will be slowest in Africa because political opposition will be strong. Yet it is here that fundamental restructuring is most urgently needed, because so many African airlines have for so long been chronically unprofitable.

    在貨物邊上太將有適當地方運送者的二個類型。 最大的意志是整合之人 , 像是 DHL ,美商優比速國際公司,聯邦快遞和其它,在誰之中鞏固將繼續如比較小的地區整合之人被買出或者崩潰。第二個團體將是專家所有-貨物航空公司,像是操作兩者預定,而且特許飛行的 Cargolux, 和在濕的租約上為網路運送者操作貨物飛行基礎的那些航空公司。(為關於空運貨櫃的更多細節,見 Doganis 2002)

    在每個主要的區域或大陸的航空公司業的將來形狀在表 9.3 被概述。 時段不確定。 被建議的形狀最有可能浮現歐洲裡面的第一和美國,可能地在 2010 之前.在別的地方,在亞洲東南部,中國或拉丁美洲人,它因為管制的而且制度障礙將更久拿改變和尤其,因為對國旗運送者的觀念的放棄的政治反對。鞏固的程序而且改變工業結構將在下個循環的低迷期間被加速。 因為政治的反對將是強的,所以改變將在非洲最慢。 然而因為這麼多非洲航空公司已經長久以來慢性無利益,所以它在這裡基本的更改結構緊急地最被需要。

    Source(s): myself
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