Justice asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

限定、非限定關係子句的使用?

請問,

在寫句子的時候,

我們要如何判斷這個句子"只能"使用限定用法,

什麼樣的情況"只能"使用非限定用法?

另外,是否存在著,兩種用法都適用的情況呢?^^

2 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    (單純)關係代名詞有兩個功能:

    1. 連接兩個句子:[主要子句]與[從屬(形容詞)子句](所以它也是一種連接詞)

    2. 在從屬子句中以代名詞的形式, 行使[主詞]/[受詞]/[補語]等功能.

    這種合併句子的完整過程是這樣的:

    1. 先決定誰當[主要子句], 誰當[從屬子句](用來修飾先行詞, 故稱形容詞子句).

    2. 再決定兩個句子的接駁點.

    舉例來說:

    Christopher Columbus was an explorer. (A)

    He discovered America in 1492. (B)

    沒有明確的指定時, 按題目通常以A為主要子句, B為從屬子句.

    [he]是普通代名詞, 它沒有連接詞的功能, 所以改為[who](或[that], 但只能用限定法). 而這個[he]可以代表[Columbus], 也可以代表[an explorer].

    以[Columbus]為接駁點: 正如您所說的, 應該用非限定法.

    Christopher Columbus, who discovered America in 1492, was an explorer.

    以[an explorer]為接駁點: 應該用限定法, 來說明這個explorer的特性, 以與其他的explorer區別.

    Christopher Columbus was an explorer who discovered America in 1492.

    但是也可以B為主要子句, A為從屬子句.

    Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.

    He was an explorer.

    這裡[he]只能代表[Columbus], 所以接駁點只有一個:

    Christopher Columbus, who was an explorer, discovered America in 1492.

    所以用限定或非限定法, 取決於先行詞本身的特性, 而不是它所代表的身份.

    The man is my father, who is a professor.

    My father is a professor who teaches Mathematics.

    ====================

    關於第二個問題, 課本的寫法並不正確.

    Kangaroos live in Australia.

    They carry their babies in pouches.

    接駁點只有一個: [they=kangaroos]

    Kangaroos, which carry their babies in pouches, live in Australia.

    或者:

    Kangaroos carry their babies in pouches.

    They live in Australia.

    Kangaroos, which live in Australia, carry their babies in pouches.

    課本的寫法把先行詞與子句隔開, 並不恰當. 或許在這個例子不至於引起誤解, 但不足取.

    而且用限定法似乎是說: 只有那些把小袋鼠放在袋子中的袋鼠才住在澳洲(是這樣嗎?).

    The Taipei Zoo has many different animals.

    The zoo is in Mucha.

    The Taipei Zoo, which is in Mucha, has many different animals.

    The Taipei Zoo is in Mucha.

    The zoo has many different animals.

    The Taipei Zoo, which has many different animals, is in Mucha.

    不當之處與上一句類似.

    ====================

    I bought some CD's that were very expensive.

    我買了一些很貴的(不是便宜的喔)CD.

    限定法修飾CD's.

    Fu Lung Beach is a great place.

    It's on the east coast of Taiwan.

    [it]=[Fu Lung Beach]=[a great place]

    Fu Lung Beach, which is on the east coast of Taiwan, is a great place.

    Fu Lung Beach is a great place which/that is on the east coast of Taiwan.

    [that]只能用限定法, 不能在that前加逗號變為非限定用法作為補充說明之用

    Source(s): 知識家
  • Amstar
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    關係代名詞: that只能用於限定用法;who或which除了限定用法之外,也可以用於非限定用法。

    限定用法:從屬子句是修飾先行詞。

    非限定用法:就是用逗號「,」將主要子句和從屬子句分開;從

    屬子句並不是用來修飾先行詞,而是用來修飾整個主要子句。

    例句:It was a problem that we had not foreseen.

    那一個困難,是我們事前沒有預料到的。

    (限定用法:從屬子句修飾先行詞problem)

    She said she had done it, which was not true.

    她說她已經做了,那並不是事實。

    (非限定用法:從屬子句是修飾整個主要子句She said she had done it)

    Source(s): 英文法:只是一些規則而已  http://www.amstarcreative.com/eng/p2videos.html
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