Well, for most swords they parts are the same, but for European swords the blade can be divided it to two parts. The "forte" is the lower half and is considered the stronger section, the "foible" is the upper half and tends to be weaker for blocking purposes. Due to the way you hold the weapon, the closer to the hand on the blade that is hit, the better chance you have of resisting the force. If you have heard of the term feeble, that is where that word originates. The weak part of the blade.
Anyways, you have the guard which is between the handle and the blade. It is also known as a cross or the quillions in european weaponry or the "tsuba" in japanese terminology. The pommel is the bottom part of the sword and is meant for balancing the weapon. Again, if you have heard the term "pommeling" someone, that is where that word comes from. There are techniques in historical sword manuals that show hitting someone in the face with that part of the sword.
Overall the guard, handle and pommel are called the "hilt"
I hope this helps. For japanese sword terminology, there are MANY different names for the parts and I couldn't begin to help you with those.