Lv 5
asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

英文文法問題,關於關係代名詞

這原本是題Cloze Test,講述關於Punk Rock,擷取部份原文如下:

In Britain, lower-class youth, ______ unemployed, expressed their rejection of established society through music, with a sound and style...(省略).

選項有4:

(A)many of them (B)they are (C)they were (D)many were

原則上,我知道可以填入many of whom were

但選項中沒有這個...

所以來請教各位,哪個選項才符合文法呢?為什麼?

感謝在先~

Update:

TO 呆子:

解的好!所以大大的意思是這題不是在問關係代名詞...

原來如此。

可否請大大舉些[受詞補語]的例子,我發現這部分我不太有感覺...

感激不盡~

Update 2:

TO 呆子:

謝謝大大的解釋,不過解釋完,我反而不太懂了~

OC依據大大給的句型,是修飾[受詞],

但我發問的題目,lower-class youth,[many of them] unemployed

                       ^^^^^^^^^^^

unemployed用來修飾 many of them,可 many of them並非受詞

嚴格的說,them 是 lower-class youth 的同位語

而 unemployed 修飾的是 many

此處應是主詞...

不知大大認為?

Update 3:

TO Kevin:

我說 Kevin 大大啊...你也太神啦~

我題目中省略的部份你也可以幫我還原啊...

了不起!太了不起了!

是用水晶球吧?哈

佩服!

Update 4:

TO 呆子:

所以大大認為 unemployed是修飾 them,而many是youth的同位語,對吧?

但這樣有些對不攏...

若 many = youth,那 them 是指誰呢?

若原形為 many of unemployed persons,那麼 them = persons,但句子中並未提及[persons],直接使用 them 似乎不妥...

Update 5:

TO 呆子:

改為 many of unemployed youth,前述問題沒了,不過擺放位置有些怪怪的...

用原形放回原句子:In Britain, lower-class youth, [many of unemployed youth], expressed their rejection of established society through music, with a sound and style...(省略).

Update 6:

若兩個 youth 指的是同樣的東西,則句意就會不通順!

括號內的因為主角是 many,所以既非同位語,但是當作主詞的話,後面什麼都沒接,所以也湊不成完整的句子!

Update 7:

若想表達的中文為:英國的下層社會年輕人,[就是很多沒工作的年輕人],用音樂來表達...

那麼兩個 youth 指的應是不同東西:一個是屬於 low-class 族群,另一個是屬於 unemployed 族群,於是 them 就不能使用了...

Update 8:

TO hobo_tough lines owner:

個人也覺得不行,例句1中雖為同位語,但有補述之意!

不過我不是Kevin大大~還是聽聽他的說法吧...

而且,Kevin大大~

妳還沒告訴我你是如何知道我的完整題目句子耶?

我很好奇...

Update 9:

真是精采的討論啊~

受益良多!

Update 10:

TO 呆子:

原則上我較偏向Kevin給的答案,若呆子大大顧及影響答題比例,可於這兩天移除解答,我沒意見。

還是謝謝你的熱心幫忙喔!多給了我一種理解句子的觀點!

3 Answers

Rating
  • Kevin
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    版主您好:

    根據您的發問內容來看, 對句子的含意應該已經了解, 只是對句法的來龍去脈有所疑惑, 是吧?

    在下用一個例子來說明:

    The soldiers have been recruited for more than 6 months, and many of them are from abroad.

    以上這個句子由兩個對等子句所構成, 連接詞[and]前後的語意份量是相等的.

    不過有時候作者基於語意的考量(假設後半段的重要性較小), 或者求取句型的變化, 會用分詞構句的型態表達:

    The soldiers have been recruited for more than 6 months, many of them being from abroad.

    分詞[being]經常被省略,

    The soldiers have been recruited for more than 6 months, many of them from abroad.

    [many of them from abroad]這個分詞構句, 是屬於"副詞"性質, 修飾的對象是"整個前半句".

    講到這裡, 我把您的句子重新排列:

    In Britain, lower-class youth expressed their rejection of established society through music, with a sound and style that were violent, aggressive, and calculated to insult, many of them (being) unemployed.

    是否和上述的例子具有相同的結構呢?

    兩者最大的差異, 在於本句的敘述部分[expressed their ... to insult]太長了, 而分詞構句的長度卻很短, 如此的寫法顯得"頭重腳輕", 而且當讀者看到[many of them], 還要花腦筋去想: 這個[them]是代表誰?

    因為這個分詞構句講的是關於[youth]的狀況, 又為了避免上述的缺點, 所以作者把它放置於[youth]之後, 整個型態就變得清楚易讀得多了:

    In Britain, lower-class youth, many of them unemployed, expressed their rejection of established society through music, with a sound and style that were violent, aggressive, and calculated to insult.

    至於您原本的想法, 用關係代名詞的非限定用法, 也是可行的方式. 但是它比較偏向"形容詞"性質, 而且是原本就緊跟著其先行詞[youth], 並不是像分詞構句那般從句尾調到前面來的.

    兩種寫法所表達的語意差異並不大, 可以視為寫作手法的變化.

    個人並不認為這裡是"同位語"的結構.

    2008-02-24 20:52:03 補充:

    版主大大:

    用"expressed their rejection of established society through music"這組關鍵詞到孤狗大神廟一求就有了, 比水晶球好用喔^_^

    2008-02-24 20:54:44 補充:

    在下之所以不認為是同位語, 原因有二:

    1. 關於"同位語", 其重點就是"等號"的成立與否.

    [lower-class youth]=[them], 但是[lower-class youth]≠[many of them]

    2. [many of them (being) unemployed]是一個簡化(不是"減化"喔)的句子, 具有意義上的主詞[many of them], 簡化(而且被省略)後的動狀詞(being), 以及主詞補語(unemployed). 除非有連接詞(譬如[that])引導而構成名詞子句, 否則無法另一個名詞的"同位語".

    2008-02-24 20:55:08 補充:

    所以hobo大改寫的句子, 其用法也非"同位語", 因為[MANY PEOPLE]≠[LOWER-CLASS YOUTH].

    另外, 個人倒是很好奇在哪本文法書明文提到"同位語(a&b)可前後位顛倒".

    因為這個想法完全基於個人的推想, 而寫在之前的一篇評論:

    http://tw.knowledge.yahoo.com/question/article?qid...

    但心理並不很踏實. 尤其是曾看到一位在下頗為信服的前輩表示過"反對"的意見.

    2008-02-25 00:13:18 補充:

    hobo大:

    [be]動詞後面接的是補語, 不是同位語.

    "同位語"可以當"補語", 反之卻不必然.

    補語只是該名詞眾多特性中的一個, 以數學的觀念來說:

    A={a1, a2, a3, ...}=B

    a1, a2, a3, ... 都可以當A的補語, 但是只有B可以當同位語.

    2008-02-25 00:13:42 補充:

    在下列單純名詞的情況下, [a professor]是補語. 和同位語可以不必細分, 但前提是"語意清楚":

    Tom Cruise, a movie star, lives here.

    Tom Cruise, who is a movie star, lives here.

    ([a movie star]不能包含[Tom Cruise]的所有特性)

    2008-02-25 00:14:02 補充:

    但是, 以下的[Tom Cruise]應視為同位語:

    ([Tom Cruise]包含[My favorite movie star]的所有特性)

    My favorite movie star, Tom Cruise, lives here.

    My favorite movie star, who is Tom Cruise, lives here. (?)

    2008-02-25 00:14:22 補充:

    hobo大的句子語意與原句是不同的.

    撇開這點不談, [WHO ARE lower-class youth]是形容詞子句, 不能當同位語; 再者, [many people]這種泛指性質的名詞, 很難找到"同位語".

    2008-02-25 00:14:34 補充:

    在子句的情況下, 差別就很明顯:

    The plea that Tom is innocent is not acknowledged by the jury.

    [plea]的同位語就只有[that Tom is innocent]這唯一的名詞子句, 但是卻可以有"無數個"形容詞子句來說明它:

    The plea that Tom made at the court is not acknowledged by the jury.

    The plea that seems true to me is not acknowledged by the jury.

    and more ...

    2008-02-25 21:22:01 補充:

    "想知道Kevin大大如何解讀014"

    不知道您的意思是...?

    2008-02-26 00:23:35 補充:

    John, my classmate, likes to cook. (A)

    My classmate, John, likes to cook. (B)

    John, who is my classmate, likes to cook. (C)

    A與C的語意及結構幾乎相同.

    A的[classmate]看成同位語或補語我都沒意見.

    C是非限定關係詞用法, 非同位語.

    2008-02-26 00:26:48 補充:

    但我不會寫出B這種型態, 而會寫成:

    My classmate John likes to cook.

    把[my classmate]視為一種身份或頭銜.

    [my classmate]同樣是"泛指性質".

    除非寫[my favorite classmate].

    2008-02-26 23:28:20 補充:

    其實我看過的文法書, 都是把A的[classmate]看成同位語, 我也不反對, 只要語意清楚.

    倒是在子句的場合, 很多人仍然沒有把形容詞子句和名詞子句搞清楚.

  • 1 decade ago

    這題單就考試解題來說,答案很明顯一看就出

    我也不認為是同位語用法

    不過,我倒是有一個疑問:文法書有提到,同位語(a&b)可前後位顛倒

    我很好奇以下例句是否相等

    2008-02-24 01:31:19 補充:

    在這之前,我想先請教Kevin大大對"同位"語的用法/定義為何(就像這題,感覺很難用文字去做解釋),我的問題(接上題,改寫如下)

    In Britain, MANY PEOPLE, LOWER-CLASS YOUTH, expressed their rejection of established society through music, with a sound and style...(省略).

    2008-02-24 01:32:01 補充:

    可寫成

    In Britain, lower-class youth, MANY PEOPLE, expressed their rejection of established society through music, with a sound and style...(省略).

    個人覺得不行

    Kevin大大認為呢?

    2008-02-24 21:51:26 補充:

    Kevin大的解釋,我大概能了解(不敢說全了解,因為隔著網路以文字敘述不好了解)

    不過我對many people不等於 lower class youth的認知和Kevin大有些出路(不是反對Kevin大的說法,而是我的認知many people不是可等同於lower class youth嗎

    2008-02-24 21:53:03 補充:

    個人倒是很好奇在哪本文法書明文提到"同位語(a&b)可前後位顛倒

    -->不敢說太明,也因為搞不好我印象有誤,那是出自於Kevin大和我都推薦的出版社出的文法書

    2008-02-24 21:59:04 補充:

    而且,Kevin大大~

    妳還沒告訴我你是如何知道我的完整題目句子耶?

    我很好奇...

    -->因為動詞不能直接連接動詞(除了例外或使用慣例外)的觀念下,又出現動詞unemployed(尤其一看就知被動態的機會很高,因為主詞是),所以可推論是分辭構句居多

    2008-02-24 22:02:20 補充:

    不過我對many people不等於 lower class youth的認知和Kevin大有些出路(不是反對Kevin大的說法,而是我的認知many people不是可等同於lower class youth嗎

    -->In Britain, many people, WHO ARE lower-class youth, expressed their rejection of established society through music, with a sound and style...(省略).

    2008-02-25 19:43:07 補充:

    謝謝Kevin大,我想我已經從您那得到我預期/想要的答案了:泛指性質的名詞, 很難找到"同位語".

    但相同的,我對那有種熟悉又陌生的感觸: 泛指性質的名詞

    有點難圈選範圍

    其實形容詞子句的用法,我印象中也是文法書中提到的,如下

    2008-02-25 19:47:16 補充:

    John, my classmate, likes to cook.

    = My classmate, John, likes to cook.

    = John, who is my classmate, likes to cook.

    many people = low-class youth --> 聽您的解釋,我好像有skip的地方,或是Kevin大大能否如果可以的話,告訴我參考資料,因為我想更了解

    謝謝

    2008-02-25 19:53:58 補充:

    many people 不等於 low-class youth --> 聽您的解釋,我好像有skip的地方,或是Kevin大大能否如果可以的話,告訴我參考資料,因為我想更了解

    撇開這點不談, [WHO ARE lower-class youth]是形容詞子句

    ->這點沒錯,我知道,但我想知道Kevin大大如何解讀014

    2008-02-25 21:49:29 補充:

    John, my classmate, likes to cook.

    = My classmate, John, likes to cook.

    = John, who is my classmate, likes to cook.

    ->是否同意這些句子相等(也就是書上說到的同位語可互為顛倒(以及=形容詞子句用法)

    TKS

    2008-02-26 19:47:56 補充:

    [my classmate]同樣是"泛指性質".

    除非寫[my favorite classmate].

    -->果然如我預期的一樣(有點難圈選範圍),classmate是不通的,我能了解Kevin大的解釋,但同時我能否了解是否市售的文法書有探討過這部份(因為以前的書,應該沒有提到)能否介紹給我做珍藏

    TKS

    2008-02-27 22:31:18 補充:

    To Kevin,

    Thanks.

  • 呆子
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    本句為同位語用法,lower-class youth, many of them unemployed---其中youth與many同為名詞, unemployed為受詞補語修飾them。*****

    2008-02-19 22:42:53 補充:

    基本句型:S+V〈及物動詞〉+O+OC ,而OC受詞補語可為名詞或形容詞,做後位修飾

    舉例:

    1. I elect him chairman. 我選他為主席

    2.I elect him a chairman.我為他選一位主席

    3.I consider him a lucky person.受詞補語可為名詞

    I consider him lucky .受詞補語可為形容詞〈過去分詞亦可當形容詞使用〉*****

    2008-02-20 14:26:41 補充:

    many of them unemployed其中them屬於介繫詞of的受詞,這是我的瞭解*****

    2008-02-20 19:58:55 補充:

    many of them unemployed是否可寫成many of unemployed persons較清楚些*****

    2008-02-21 22:11:42 補充:

    many of unemployed persons改為many of unemployed youth較妥當些****

    2008-02-24 11:10:28 補充:

    版主言之有理。而我認為是同位語用法,只是減化用法。因下列二句分開均成立,In Britain, lower-class youth expressed ______與 In Britain, many of unemployed youth expressed ______

Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.