chung asked in 文學及人文學歷史 · 1 decade ago



2 Answers

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago
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    Euclid (Greek: Εὐκλείδης — Eukleidēs), fl. 300 BC, also known as Euclid of Alexandria, "The Father of Geometry" was a Greek mathematician of the Hellenistic period who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC–283 BC). His Elements is the most successful textbook in the history of mathematics. In it, the principles of Euclidean geometry are deduced from a small set of axioms. Euclid's method of proving mathematical theorems by logical deduction from accepted principles remains the backbone of all mathematics, imbuing that field with its characteristic rigor.

    Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, and possibly quadric surfaces.

    Biographical knowledge:

    Little is known about Euclid other than his writings. What little biographical information we do have comes largely from commentaries by Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria: Euclid was active at the great Library of Alexandria and may have studied at Plato's Academy in Greece. Euclid's exact lifespan and place of birth are unknown.

    Some writers in the Middle Ages confused him with Euclid of Megara, a Greek Socratic philosopher who lived approximately one century earlier.

    The Elements:

    Although many of the results in Elements originated with earlier mathematicians, one of Euclid's accomplishments was to present them in a single, logically coherent framework, making it easy to use and easy to reference, including a system of rigorous mathematical proofs that remains the basis of mathematics 23 centuries later.

    Although best-known for its geometric results, the Elements also includes number theory. It considers the connection between perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, the infinitude of prime numbers, Euclid's lemma on factorization (which leads to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic on uniqueness of prime factorizations), and the Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two numbers.

    The geometrical system described in the Elements was long known simply as geometry, and was considered to be the only geometry possible. Today, however, that system is often referred to as Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from other so-called Non-Euclidean geometries that mathematicians discovered in the 19th century.

  • 1 decade ago



      除了《幾何原本》之外,歐幾里得還有不少著作,可惜大都失傳。唯一保存下來的純粹幾何著作《己知數》(The data),體例和《幾何原本》前6卷相似,包括94個命題,指出若圖形中的某些元素己知,則另外的一些元素也可以確定。《圓形的分割》(On divisions of figures)現存拉丁文本與阿拉伯文本,論述用直線將已知圖形分為相等的部分或成比例的部分。《光學》(Optica)是早期的幾何光學著作之一,研究透視問題,指出光的入射角等於反射角。認為視學是眼睛發出光線到達物體的結果等。還有一些著作未能確定是否屬於歐幾里得,而且已經散失。

    Source(s): 藍紀正、朱恩寬譯,《歐幾里得幾何原本》,九章出版社,台灣,1992
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