British imperialism in china?
Did china ever benefit from british (or any other type) imperializing in china?
- FrostyLv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
The 16th century brought many Jesuit missionaries to China, such as Matteo Ricci, where Western science was introduced, and where Europeans gathered knowledge of Chinese society, history, culture, and science. During the 18th century merchants from Western Europe came to China in increasing numbers. However, merchants were confined to Guangzhou and the Portuguese colony of Macao, as they had been since the 16th century. European traders were increasingly irritated by what they saw as the relatively high customs duties they had to pay and by the attempts to curb the growing import trade in opium. By 1800 its importation was forbidden by the imperial government. However, the opium trade continued to boom.
Early in the 19th century, serious internal weaknesses developed in the Manchu empire that left China vulnerable to Western, Japanese, and Russian imperialism. In 1839, China found itself fighting the First Opium War with Britain. China was defeated, and in 1842, agreed to the provisions of the Treaty of Nanjing. Hong Kong was ceded to Britain, and certain ports, including Shanghai and Guangzhou, were opened to British trade and residence. In 1856, the Second Opium War broke out. The Chinese were again defeated, and now forced to the terms of the 1858 Treaty of Tientsin. The treaty opened new ports to trade and allowed foreigners to travel in the interior. Christians gained the right to propagate their religion—another means of Western penetration. The United States and Russia later obtained the same prerogatives in separate treaties.
Toward the end of the 19th century, China appeared on the way to territorial dismemberment and economic vassalage—the fate of India’s rulers that played out much earlier. Several provisions of these treaties caused long-standing bitterness and humiliation among the Chinese: extraterritoriality (meaning that in a dispute with a Chinese person, a Westerner had the right to be tried in a court under the laws of his own country), customs regulation, and the right to station foreign warships in Chinese waters.
The rise of Japan since the Meiji Restoration as an imperialist power led to further subjugation of China. In a dispute over China's longstanding claim of suzerainty in Korea, war broke out between China and Japan, resulting in humiliating defeat for the Chinese. By the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895), China was forced to recognize effective Japanese rule of Korea and Taiwan.
China's defeat at the hands of Japan was another trigger for future aggressive actions by Western powers. In 1897, Germany demanded and was given a set of exclusive mining and railroad rights in Shandong province. Russia obtained access to Dairen and Port Arthur and the right to build a railroad across Manchuria, thereby achieving complete domination over a large portion of northwestern China. The United Kingdom and France also received a number of concessions at this time. At this time, much of China was divided up into "spheres of influence": Germany dominated Jiaozhou (Kiaochow) Bay, Shandong, and the Huang He (Hwang-Ho) valley; Russia dominated the Liaodong Peninsula and Manchuria; the United Kingdom dominated Weihaiwei and the Yangtze Valley; and France dominated the Guangzhou Bay and several other southern provinces.
China continued to be divided up into spheres of influence until the United States, which had no sphere of influence, grew alarmed at the possibility of its businessmen being excluded from Chinese markets. In 1899, Secretary of State John Hay asked the major powers to agree to a policy of equal trading privileges. In 1900, several powers agreed to the U.S.-backed scheme, giving rise to the "Open Door" policy, denoting freedom of commercial access and non-annexation of Chinese territory. In any event, it was in the European powers' interest to have a weak but independent Manchu government. The privileges of the Europeans in China were guaranteed in the form of treaties with the Qing government. In the event that the Qing government totally collapsed, each power risked losing the privileges that it already had negotiated. As such, nor was it in the interest of the Europeans to have an overly strong government in China, with the ability to control Westerners and renegotiate treaties.
The erosion of Chinese sovereignty contributed to a spectacular anti-foreign outbreak in June, 1900, when the "Boxers" (properly the society of the "righteous and harmonious fists") attacked European legations in Beijing, provoking a rare display of unity among the powers, whose troops landed at Tianjin and marched on the capital. British & French forces looted, plundered & burned the Old Summer Palace to the ground, as a form of threat to force the Qing empire to give in to demands. German forces were particularly severe in exacting revenge for the killing of their ambassador, while Russia tightened its hold on Manchuria in the northeast until its crushing defeat by Japan in the war of 1904-1905.
Although extraterritorial jurisdiction was abandoned by the United Kingdom and America in 1943, foreign political control of parts of China only finally ended with the incorporation of Hong Kong and the small Portuguese territory of Macau into the People's Republic of China in 1997 and 1999 respectively.Source(s): Wikipedia
- Anonymous4 years ago
Imperialism On ChinaSource(s): https://shrinkurl.im/a8kBT
- Anonymous6 years ago
History is just history. And the same as other countries used to be charge of British imperialism
- Anonymous7 years ago
short answer is Yes, long answer is NO
yes because the British transformed HongKong from a fish village to a world finical center worth trillions of assets.
and the British forced the chinese to open trading ports, and building railways, telephone lines tec.... which was a great a leap forward.
and I was born in a town called JiaoZuo central China, the entire city was started by the british, because it had a huge coal reserve under the ground, we still proud about having the first modern hospital, first proper mining college, first power station in central china etc,...... but hell..... our coal is all gone, dig out and sold by the british over the 100 years.
since we lost the wall in 1900s we have paid way too much compensation was the result of losing the war,
this triggered a lot of problem, the entire economy was crashed,
the kings summer resort was 10 times bigger than the forbidden palace was burned down, millions of artifices was lost and stolen, we did not repair it, or rebuild it, because we want to future generation
to remember it.
so a big NO, British developed Hong Kong because they never ever ever thought we will claim it back.
British developed other part of the China mainly to serve their own interests
plus the queen was the biggest drug dealer, the first and 2nd Opuim war started because we refuse them to sell Opuim in China. what on earth is this a valid reason??
in general the white history is full of blood and shame, killing our chinese biological cousin the red indians,
rob the Mexicans while they were having civil war, the slave trade, and the Queen was the biggest pirate in 1800s.
- How do you think about the answers? You can sign in to vote the answer.
- Anonymous1 decade ago
The British are ingenous peoples settling in area of conflict, the British settled in Hong kong and established ports and offical outposts at the end of the Opuim Wars I & II, China signed a 100 year lease.
the benefits of the British in are of the Captialist nature and free enterprise the founding of the commerce of a colony
- 7 years ago
In some way of course. Overall, no way of telling because nobody ever tried out another path of history. On average most societies do not benefit from being invaded and colonized.
- 6 years ago
Close to nothing... The only thing I can think of: China finally realized it was hopelessly eclipsed by another culture the first time in its history. And it eventually began to change.
- 6 years ago
People in China both hate and love the British, because the british stole away alot of our tresures and we love them because of their great tecnology influences.
- 6 years ago