鞭炮的由來、春聯的意義(英文)

鞭炮的由來

無論是過年過節,還是結婚嫁娶,進學升遷,以至大廈落成、商店開張等等,隻要為了表示喜慶,人們都習慣放鞭炮來慶祝。

這個習俗在我國已有2000多年的歷史了。《荊楚歲時記》曾經這樣記載,正月初一,雞叫頭一遍時,大家就紛紛起床,在自家院子裡放爆竹,來逐退瘟神惡鬼。

當時沒有火藥,沒有紙張,人們便用火燒竹子,使之爆裂發聲,以驅逐瘟神,這當然是迷信,但卻反映了古代勞動人民渴求安泰的美好願望。

到了唐朝,鞭炮又被人們稱為"爆竿",大概是將一支較長的竹竿逐節燃燒,連續發爆破之聲。南昌詩人來鵠的《早春》詩句:"新歷才將半紙開,小亭猶聚爆竿灰。"寫的就是當時春節燃燒竹竿的情景。

后來,煉丹家經過不斷的化學試驗,發現硝石、硫黃和木炭合在一起能引起燃燒和爆炸,於是發明了火藥。有人將火藥裝在竹筒裡燃放,聲音更大,使得火燒竹子這一古老習俗發生了根本變化。北宋時,民間已經出現了用卷紙裹著火藥的燃放物,還有丹響和雙響的區別,改名"爆仗",后又改為"鞭炮"。

春聯的意義

春聯最早是由避邪的桃符演變而來的。相傳古代有一兇暴甚於鬼的人叫后羿,被桃枝打死,人們就相信在門楣上懸掛桃枝可以驅鬼;後來又盛傳山林裡住著「神荼」、「鬱壘」兩位神仙專門吃鬼怪,人們就把桃枝刻成這兩個神的模樣懸掛在門上,期能永久平安,這就是所謂的桃符。

後來桃符漸漸簡化,以方形紅紙畫個桃形,再寫上神荼、鬱壘的名字代替。到唐朝以後,又在這紅紙寫些吉祥話,再修飾對仗,慢慢就形成今天的春聯。

從早期的避邪求平安,到文人述志展文才,春聯一直是社會的縮影與人文現象的表徵,是創作者與所有人的心理投射與職業生活的顯象。因此,瀏覽一地的春聯,就是了解民情的捷徑。

PS.請注意:

幫我把以上2段翻成英文。

我要簡單一點的英文,不要用一大堆太深澳的文字。

也不要用段落翻譯 翻整段,出來的文法也寫都不順,也很奇怪。

謝謝各位了

3 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    The firecrackers origin regardless of is celebrates the new year to

    celebrate a holiday, or the marriage marriage, goes to school is

    promoted, down to the building is completed, the store is open for

    business and so on, so long as in order to express the jubilation, the

    people all custom sets off the firecrackers to celebrate.

    This custom had more than 2,000 years history in our country. "Jingchu

    Year old Time mark" once like this recorded, when in first lunar month

    first day, the chicken called first, everybody in abundance got out of

    bed, put the firecracker in oneself courtyard, came by to draw back

    the god of plague malicious ghost.

    At that time did not have the gunpowder, did not have the paper, the

    people then used to burn down the bamboo, caused it to rupture the

    sound production, pursued the god of plague, this certainly was

    blindly believed in, but actually had reflected the ancient times

    working people earnestly sought the peaceful and undisturbed happy

    desire.

    To the Tang Dynasty, the firecrackers have been called by the people

    "爆竿", probably is a longer bamboo pole by festival burning,

    continuously sends sound of the demolition. The Nanchang poet comes

    the swan "Early spring" the verse: The "new experience only then opens

    half paper, the cabin still gathers 爆竿the ash. "wrote is Spring

    Festival burns at that time the bamboo pole scene.

    Afterwards, built up the alchemist to pass through the unceasing

    chemical test, discovered the niter, the sulphur and the charcoal

    gathered in the same place can cause burning and the detonation,

    thereupon has invented the gunpowder. Some people install the

    gunpowder in the bamboo tube set off, the sound was louder, causes to

    burn down bamboo this ancient custom to have the radical change. When

    Northern Song Dynasty, the folk already appeared has bound the

    gunpowder with the rolled paper to set off the thing, but also had the

    Dan sound with 雙響the difference, changed name "爆仗", latter

    changed "firecrackers".

    2008-01-30 20:23:52 補充:

    Spring festival couplet significance

    The spring festival couplet most early is by avoids evil

    influences 桃符 the evolution to come.

    2008-01-30 20:24:20 補充:

    Hands down person's which the ancient times had an ominous storm really Yu Kuei to name be Hou Yi, 桃枝 is killed, the people believed was hanging on the lintel 桃枝 may expel evil spirits;

    2008-01-30 20:28:27 補充:

    Afterwards was widely known in the wooded mountain to live "神荼", "the strongly fragrant rampart" two deities specially is eating the ghost, the people on 桃枝 engraved these two gods the appearance to be hanging in the gate, the time could permanent be safe,

    2008-01-30 20:28:37 補充:

    this was so-called 桃符.Afterwards 桃符 gradually simplified, by the square shape red paper picture peach shape, inscribed 神荼, Yu Lei name again replaces.

    2008-01-30 20:29:28 補充:

    To Tang Dynasty after, also writes in this red paper 吉祥話, again decorates the antithesis, slowly forms today the spring festival couplet.Avoids evil influences from the early time strives for safely,

    2008-01-30 20:29:36 補充:

    states the will to the writer to unfold the literary talent, the spring festival couplet always is society's miniature and the humanities phenomenon attribute,

    2008-01-30 20:29:40 補充:

    is the creator and all people's psychological projection and the occupation life developing. Therefore, glances over place the spring festival couplet, is understands the public sentiment the shortcut.

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  • 5 years ago

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  • 9 years ago

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