Egypt is situated in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Libya is on its western border and the Gaza Strip and the Red Sea makes up the eastern border. The Sudan lies on Egypt's southern border.
Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km and the Sudan 1,273 km.
Egypt covers 95,450 sq km , slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico, US. It has a desert climate with hot, dry summers and moderate winters. The country is basically a vast desert plateau interrupted by the Nile valley and delta. Its lowest point is at the Qattara Depression -133 m, and the highest point is Mount Catherine at 2,629 m. Natural hazards that afflict the country are: Periodic droughts, frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides and a hot, driving windstorm called khamsin which occurs in the spring.
Egypt controls the Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Its size, and juxtaposition to Israel establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics.
More than 76 million people live in Egypt. Life expectancy is around 70 years. Birth rate is on average 2.95 per woman. Literacy rate is 68% for men and only 47% for women.
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes.
Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%. Greek, Nubian, Armenian and other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%.
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%.