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Peter Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; (c. 1100–July 20, 1160 in Paris) was a scholastic theologian and bishop and author of Four Books of Sentences, which became the standard textbook of theology, for which he is also known as Magister Sententiarum.
彼得倫巴底人或 Petrus Lombardus； （c。 1100 七月的 20, 1160 在巴黎）是一個學校的神學者和主教而且句子的四本書，成為了神學的標準教科書著作，為哪一個他也即是 Magister Sententiarum。
Peter Lombard was born in Lumellogno, now a quartiere of Novara, Lombardy, to a poor family on the dole. His date of birth was likely between 1095 and 1100.
His education most likely began in Italy at the cathedral schools of Novara and Lucca. The patronage of Otto, bishop of Lucca, who recommended him to Bernard of Clairvaux, allowed him to leave Italy and further his studies at Reims and Paris. Petrus Lombardus studied first in the cathedral school at Reims, where Magister Alberich and Lutolph of Novara were teaching, and arrived in Paris about 1134, where Bernard recommended him to the canons of the church of St-Victor. In Paris, where he spent the next decade teaching at the cathedral school of Notre Dame, he came into contact with Peter Abelard and Hugh of St. Victor, who were among the leading theologians of the time. There are no proven facts relating to his whereabouts in Paris until 1142 when he became recognized as writer and teacher. Around 1145, Peter became a "magister", or professor, at the cathedral school of Notre Dame in Paris. Peter's means of earning a living before he began to derive income as a teacher and from his canon's prebend is shrouded in uncertainty.
彼得倫巴底人在 Lumellogno 、  現在 Novara 的 quartiere ，意大利北部州名出生，對一個貧窮的家庭在施捨品上。〔需要的引用〕他的出生的日期是有可能的在 1095 和 1100之間.
他的教育很有可能在 Novara 和 Lucca 的大教堂學校的義大利開始了。 玫瑰汕的贊助， Lucca 的主教，跟 Clairvaux 的伯拿推薦他，讓他離開義大利而且在蘭斯和巴黎促進他的研究。 Petrus Lombardus 在蘭斯的大教堂學校中學習了第一， w
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Lombard's dialectical style of teaching gained quick acknowledgment. It can be surmised that this attention is what prompted the canons of Notre Dame to ask him to join their ranks. He was considered a celebrated theologian by 1144.
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The Parisian school of canons had not included among their number a theologian of high regard for some years. The canons of Notre Dame, to a man, were members of the Capetian dynasty, relatives of families closely aligned to the Capetians by blood or marriage,
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scions of the Ile-de-France or eastern Loire Valley nobility, or relatives of royal officials. In contrast, Peter had no relatives, ecclesiastical connections, and no political patrons in France. It seems that he must have been invited by the canons of Notre Dame solely for his academic merit.
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教學的倫巴底人的辯證法風格得到了快的承認。 它能被推測這注意是什麼促使了 Notre 的教會法規夫人要求他參加他們的排名。 他被視為一個馳名神學者 1144 。 教會法規的巴黎學校在他們的數字一個高關心的神學者之中沒有包括有數年之久。
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Notre 的教會法規到一個男人的夫人是 Capetian 朝代的成員，家庭的親戚嚴密地對 Capetians b 排列 ,Ile de 的接穗－法國或 Loire 山谷東部貴族、或王室官員的親戚。 在差別中，彼得在法國沒有了親戚，教會的連接、和沒有政治的贊助人。 它似乎是他為他的學院功績獨自地由 Notre 的教會法規夫人一定曾經邀請。
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He became a subdeacon in 1147, and was ordained priest some time before 1156. At the Council of Reims (1148) and possibly at the consistory of Paris the year before,
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he took part as a theological expert. At some time after 1150 he became a deacon, then an archdeacon by 1156, or maybe as early as 1152. In 1159, he was named bishop of Paris: a hostile witness,
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Walter of St Victor accused Peter of obtaining the office by simony, though he had no sources of income; the more usual story is that Philip, younger brother of Louis VII. and archdeacon of Notre-Dame was elected by the canons but declined in favor of Peter, his teacher.
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Peter was consecrated at the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, 28 July 1159.
His reign as bishop was brief. He died on either July 21 or 22, 1160. Little can be ascertained about Lombard's administrative style or objectives because he left behind so few episcopal acta.
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He was succeeded by Maurice de Sully, the builder of the Cathedral of Notre Dame. His tomb in the church of Saint-Marcel in Paris was destroyed during the French Revolution, but a transcription of his epitaph survives.
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他在 1147 年成為了一個副助祭, 而且在 1156 之前被注定牧師一些時間。 在蘭斯 （1148) 的議會而且以前在巴黎的宗教法院那年可能地，他拿了作為一個神學的專家部份。
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某些時候在 1150之後他成為了一個副主祭，然後一個副主教 1156, 或早在 1152 也許. 在 1159 年，他叫做巴黎的主教： 雖然他沒有了收入的來源，一個懷敵意的目擊者，
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聖勝利者的沃爾特控告彼得獲得僧職買賣，  的辦公室； 比較平常的故事是那
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Peter Lombard wrote commentaries on the Psalms and the Pauline epistles; however, his most famous work by far was Libri Quatuor Sententiarum, or the Four Books of Sentences, which became the standard textbook of theology at the medieval universities.
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From the 1220s until the 16th century, no work of Christian literature, except for the Bible itself, was commented upon more frequently. All the major medieval thinkers,
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from Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas to William of Ockham and Gabriel Biel, were influenced by it. Even the young Martin Luther still wrote glosses on the Sentences.
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The Four Books of Sentences is a compilation of biblical texts, together with relevant passages from the Church Fathers and many medieval thinkers, on virtually the entire field of Christian theology as it was understood at the time.
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- 1 decade ago