GUESS WHAT..... if you are a science wiz i need help?
1. were is the website that i can get the IVCDV chart
2. what is stimulus respone and structure response?
3. what are all the parts of the DIGESTIVE system and you give me ubfo. about each parts?
4.what are energy transoformations?
5. what are structure and function?
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7. and all the non-renewable and renewable and inexsatiable things that you need to learn in the 6th grade
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Experimental Design Name: _____________________
Class Period: _____________________
Variable Something that changes.
There is no such thing as a constant variable.
6 Concepts of Experimental Design 1) Independent Variable 4) Control Group
2) Dependent Variable 5) Experimental Group
3) Constant 6) Repeated Trials
Independent Variable The variable that is changed on purpose by the experimenter.
The cause, stimulus, reason, manipulated variable, etc.
This is the “if” part of the hypothesis.
Dependent Variable The variable that responds. What you are measuring.
The effect(s), result(s), responding variable, etc.
This is the “then” part of hypothesis.
Constants All factors which are NOT allowed to change during the experiment.
Control Group The group (standard) to which everything is compared.
Experimental Group The group(s) being tested with the independent variable.
Each test group has only one factor different from the other test groups:
the independent variable.
Repeated Trials The number of times the experiment is repeated.
The more times you repeat the experiment, the more VALID your results are.
IVCDV Chart Used to design and organize information before performing an experiment.
Shows you how the independent variable(s), dependent variable(s) and
V Chart Used to form a hypothesis.
If Independent Variable + Verb, then Dependent Variable + Verb = Hypothesis
Hypothesis An educated guess or what you think will happen in an experiment.
Needs to be written as an “If / Then” statement.
Victor, Jonathan D. and Keith P. Purpura. Spatial phase and the temporal structure of the response to gratings in V1. J. Neurophysiol. 80: 554-571, 1998. We recorded single-unit activity of 25 units in the parafoveal representation of macaque V1 to transient appearance of sinusoidal gratings. Gratings were systematically varied in spatial phase and in one or two of the following: contrast, spatial frequency, and orientation. Individual responses were compared based on spike counts, and also according to metrics sensitive to spike timing. For each metric, the extent of stimulus-dependent clustering of individual responses was assessed via the transmitted information, H. In nearly all data sets, stimulus-dependent clustering was maximal for metrics sensitive to the temporal pattern of spikes, typically with a precision of 25-50 ms. To focus on the interaction of spatial phase with other stimulus attributes, each data set was analyzed in two ways. In the "pooled phases" approach, the phase of the stimulus was ignored in the assessment of clustering, to yield an index Hpooled. In the "individual phases" approach, clustering was calculated separately for each spatial phase and then averaged across spatial phases to yield an index Hindiv. Hpooled expresses the extent to which a spike train represents contrast, spatial frequency, or orientation in a manner which is not confounded by spatial phase (phase-independent representation), whereas Hindiv expresses the extent to which a spike train represents one of these attributes, provided spatial phase is fixed (phase-dependent representation). Here, representation means that a stimulus attribute has a reproducible and systematic influence on individual responses, not a neural mechanism for decoding this influence. During the initial 100 ms of the response, contrast was represented in a phase-dependent manner by simple cells but primarily in a phase-independent manner by complex cells. As the response evolved, simple cell responses acquired phase-independent contrast information, whereas complex cells acquired phase-dependent contrast information. Simple cells represented orientation and spatial frequency in a primarily phase-dependent manner, but also they contained some phase-independent information in their initial response segment. Complex cells showed primarily phase-independent representation of orientation but primarily phase-dependent representation of spatial frequency. Joint representation of two attributes (contrast and spatial frequency, contrast and orientation, spatial frequency and orientation) was primarily phase dependent for simple cells, and primarily phase independent for complex cells. In simple and complex cells, the variability in the number of spikes elicited on each response was substantially greater than the expectations of a Poisson process. Although some of this variation could be attributed to the dependence of the response on the spatial phase of the grating, variability was still markedly greater than Poisson when the contribution of spatial phase to response variance was removed.
The digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus (see figure). Inside this tube is a lining called the mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food.
Two solid organs, the liver and the pancreas, produce digestive juices that reach the intestine through small tubes. In addition, parts of other organ systems (for instance, nerves and blood) play a major role in the digestive system.
Why is digestion important?
When we eat such things as bread, meat, and vegetables, they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment. Our food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body. Digestion is the process by which food and drink are broken down into their smallest parts so that the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy.
How is food digested?
Digestion involves the mixing of food, its movement through the digestive tract, and the chemical breakdown of the large molecules of food into smaller molecules. Digestion begins in the mouth, when we chew and swallow, and is completed in the small intestine. The chemical process varies somewhat for different kinds of food.
Movement of Food Through the System
The large, hollow organs of the digestive system contain muscle that enables their walls to move. The movement of organ walls can propel food and liquid and also can mix the contents within each organ. Typical movement of the esophagus, stomach, and intestine is called peristalsis. The action of peristalsis looks like an ocean wave moving through the muscle. The muscle of the organ produces a narrowing and then propels the narrowed portion slowly down the length of the organ. These waves of narrowing push the food and fluid in front of them through each hollow organ.
The first major muscle movement occurs when food or liquid is swallowed. Although we are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves.
The esophagus is the organ into which the swallowed food is pushed. It connects the throat above with the stomach below. At the junction of the esophagus and stomach, there is a ringlike valve closing the passage between the two organs. However, as the food approaches the closed ring, the surrounding muscles relax and allow the food to pass.
The food then enters the stomach, which has three mechanical tasks to do. First, the stomach must store the swallowed food and liquid. This requires the muscle of the upper part of the stomach to relax and accept large volumes of swallowed material. The second job is to mix up the food, liquid, and digestive juice produced by the stomach. The lower part of the stomach mixes these materials by its muscle action. The third task of the stomach is to empty its contents slowly into the small intestine.
Several factors affect emptying of the stomach, including the nature of the food (mainly its fat and protein content) and the degree of muscle action of the emptying stomach and the next organ to receive the contents (the small intestine). As the food is digested in the small intestine and dissolved into the juices from the pancreas, liver, and intestine, the contents of the intestine are mixed and pushed forward to allow further digestion.
Finally, all of the digested nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal walls. The waste products of this process include undigested parts of the food, known as fiber, and older cells that have been shed from the mucosa. These materials are propelled into the colon, where they remain, usually for a day or two, until the feces are expelled by a bowel movement.
Production of Digestive Juices
The glands that act first are in the mouth—the salivary glands. Saliva produced by these glands contains an enzyme that begins to digest the starch from food into smaller molecules.
The next set of digestive glands is in the stomach lining. They produce stomach acid and an enzyme that digests protein. One of the unsolved puzzles of the digestive system is why the acid juice of the stomach does not dissolve the tissue of the stomach itself. In most people, the stomach mucosa is able to resist the juice, although food and other tissues of the body cannot.
After the stomach empties the food and juice mixture into the small intestine, the juices of two other digestive organs mix with the food to continue the process of digestion. One of these organs is the pancreas. It produces a juice that contains a wide array of enzymes to break down the carbohydrate, fat, and protein in food. Other enzymes that are active in the process come from glands in the wall of the intestine or even a part of that wall.
The liver produces yet another digestive juice—bile. The bile is stored between meals in the gallbladder. At mealtime, it is squeezed out of the gallbladder into the bile ducts to reach the intestine and mix with the fat in our food. The bile acids dissolve the fat into the watery contents of the intestine, much like detergents that dissolve grease from a frying pan. After the fat is dissolved, it is digested by enzymes from the pancreas and the lining of the intestine.
Absorption and Transport of Nutrients
Digested molecules of food, as well as water and minerals from the diet, are absorbed from the cavity of the upper small intestine. Most absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the blood and are carried off in the bloodstream to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change. As already noted, this part of the process varies with different types of nutrients.
Carbohydrates. It is recommended that about 55 to 60 percent of total daily calories be from carbohydrates. Some of our most common foods contain mostly carbohydrates. Examples are bread, potatoes, legumes, rice, spaghetti, fruits, and vegetables. Many of these foods contain both starch and fiber.
The digestible carbohydrates are broken into simpler molecules by enzymes in the saliva, in juice produced by the pancreas, and in the lining of the small intestine. Starch is digested in two steps: First, an enzyme in the saliva and pancreatic juice breaks the starch into molecules called maltose; then an enzyme in the lining of the small intestine (maltase) splits the maltose into glucose molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is stored or used to provide energy for the work of the body.
Table sugar is another carbohydrate that must be digested to be useful. An enzyme in the lining of the small intestine digests table sugar into glucose and fructose, each of which can be absorbed from the intestinal cavity into the blood. Milk contains yet another type of sugar, lactose, which is changed into absorbable molecules by an enzyme called lactase, also found in the intestinal lining.
Protein. Foods such as meat, eggs, and beans consist of giant molecules of protein that must be digested by enzymes before they can be used to build and repair body tissues. An enzyme in the juice of the stomach starts the digestion of swallowed protein. Further digestion of the protein is completed in the small intestine. Here, several enzymes from the pancreatic juice and the lining of the intestine carry out the breakdown of huge protein molecules into small molecules called amino acids. These small molecules can be absorbed from the hollow of the small intestine into the blood and then be carried to all parts of the body to build the walls and other parts of cells.
Fats. Fat molecules are a rich source of energy for the body. The first step in digestion of a fat such as butter is to dissolve it into the watery content of the intestinal cavity. The bile acids produced by the liver act as natural detergents to dissolve fat in water and allow the enzymes to break the large fat molecules into smaller molecules, some of which are fatty acids and cholesterol. The bile acids combine with the fatty acids and cholesterol and help these molecules to move into the cells of the mucosa. In these cells the small molecules are formed back into large molecules, most of which pass into vessels (called lymphatics) near the intestine. These small vessels carry the reformed fat to the veins of the chest, and the blood carries the fat to storage depots in different parts of the body.
Vitamins. Another vital part of our food that is absorbed from the small intestine is the class of chemicals we call vitamins. The two different types of vitamins are classified by the fluid in which they can be dissolved: water-soluble vitamins (all the B vitamins and vitamin C) and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, and K).
Water and salt. Most of the material absorbed from the cavity of the small intestine is water in which salt is dissolved. The salt and water come from the food and liquid we swallow and the juices secreted by the many digestive glands.
The various forms of energy can be transformed into one another. Such as electricity can be turned into heat through something such as friction. Energy transformations is an important constituents of the application of the energy concept in various natural sciences including biology, chemistry, geology and cosmology. In physics and engineering, energy transformation is often termed as energy conversion, is any process of transforming one form of energy to another. Energy of fossil fuels, solar radiation, or nuclear fuels can be converted into other energy forms such as electrical, propulsive, or heating that are more useful to us. Often, machines are used to transform energy. The efficiency of a machine characterizes how well (how efficiently) it can produce a useful output (such as work for example) through such a conversion.
Energy may be transformed so that it may be used by other natural processes or machines, or else to provide some service to society (such as heat, light, or motion). For example, an internal combustion engine converts the potential chemical energy in gasoline and oxygen into the propulsive energy that moves a vehicle. A solar cell converts solar radiation into electrical energy that can then be used to light a bulb or power a computer. The generic name for a device which converts energy from one form to another is transducer.
STRUCTURE_1. mode of building, construction, or organization; arrangement of parts, elements, or constituents: a pyramidal structure.
2. something built or constructed, as a building, bridge, or dam.
3. a complex system considered from the point of view of the whole rather than of any single part: the structure of modern science.
4. anything composed of parts arranged together in some way; an organization.
5. the relationship or organization of the component parts of a work of art or literature: the structure of a poem.
6. Biology. mode of organization; construction and arrangement of tissues, parts, or organs.
a. the attitude of a bed or stratum or of beds or strata of sedimentary rocks, as indicated by the dip and strike.
b. the coarser composition of a rock, as contrasted with its texture.
8. Chemistry. the manner in which atoms in a molecule are joined to each other, esp. in organic chemistry where molecular arrangement is represented by a diagram or model.
a. the system or complex of beliefs held by members of a social group.
b. the system of relations between the constituent groups of a society.
c. the relationship between or the interrelated arrangement of the social institutions of a society or culture, as of mores, marriage customs, or family.
d. the pattern of relationships, as of status or friendship, existing among the members of a group or society.
10. the pattern of organization of a language as a whole or of arrangements of linguistic units, as phonemes, morphemes or tagmemes, within larger units.
FUNCTION_1. the kind of action or activity proper to a person, thing, or institution; the purpose for which something is designed or exists; role.
2. any ceremonious public or social gathering or occasion.
3. a factor related to or dependent upon other factors: Price is a function of supply and demandSource(s): UR WELCOME