Causes and effects/ What was each act?
sorry its for my review sheet and the test is tomorrow and i need help
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
The Sugar Act (citation 4 Geo. III c. 15), passed on April 5, 1764, was a revenue-raising Act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain. It revised the earlier Sugar and Molasses Act, which had imposed a tax of six pence per gallon on molasses in order to make English products cheaper than those from the French West Indies.
Effect on the American colonies:
The Sugar Act was passed by Parliament on April 5, 1764, and it arrived in the colonies at a time of economic depression. A good part of the reason was that a significant portion of the colonial economy during the Seven Years War was involved with supplying food and supplies to the British Army. Colonials, however, especially those impacted directly as merchants and shippers, assumed that the highly visible new tax program was the major culprit. As protests against the Sugar Act developed, it was the economic impact rather than the constitutional issue of taxation without representation, that was the main focus for the Americans.
New England especially suffered economic losses from the Sugar Act. The stricter enforcement made smuggling more dangerous and risky, and the profit margin on rum, so the colonists argued, was too small to support any tax. Forced to increase their prices, many Americans, it was feared, would be priced out of the market. The British West Indies, on the other hand, now had undivided access to colonial exports and with supply well exceeding demand the islands prospered with their reduced expenses while all New Englanders saw the revenue from their exports decrease. The foreign West Indies had also been the primary colonial source for specie, and as the reserves of specie were depleted the soundness of colonial currency was threatened.
Two prime movers behind the protests to the act were Samuel Adams and James Otis, both of Massachusetts. In August 1764, fifty Boston merchants agreed to stop purchasing British luxury items, and in both Boston and New York there were movements to increase colonial manufacturing. There were sporadic outbreaks of violence, most notably in Rhode Island. Overall, however, there was not an immediate high level of protest over the Sugar Act either in New England or the rest of the colonies. That would begin in the later part of the next year when the Stamp Act was passed. The Sugar Act was repealed in 1766 and replaced with a further reduced tax of one pence per gallon on all molasses imports, British or foreign. This occurred around the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed.
A stamp act is a law enacted by a government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents. Those that pay the tax receive an official stamp on their documents. The tax raised, called stamp duty, was first devised in the Netherlands in 1624 after a public competition to find a new form of tax. A variety of products have been covered by stamp acts including playing cards, patent medicines, cheques, mortgages, contracts and newspapers. The items often have to be physically stamped at approved government offices following payment of the duty, although methods involving annual payment of a fixed sum or purchase of adhesive stamps are more practical and common.
Stamp acts were enforced in many countries, including Australia, People's Republic of China, Canada, Ireland, Malaysia, Israel, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
The Townshend Acts (1767) passed by Parliament on June 29, 1767 refer to two Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain passed in 1767, which were proposed by Charles Townshend . These laws placed a tax on common products imported into the American Colonies, such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea. It also granted certain duties in the British Colonies. In contrast to the Stamp Act of 1765, the laws were not a direct tax, but a tax on imports. The Townshend Acts also created three new admiralty courts to try Americans. This taxation was a result of the cost of the Seven Years War. It was felt that since the outcome of the war benefitted the colonies, it was only proper that they bear a small portion of the financial burden.
The Writs of Assistance gave tax collectors permission to search for smuggled goods. Often, these smuggled goods were sold in England and in the European countryside. Therefore creating more income for the British. The Acts led to outrage among the colonists and helped spark the Liberty seizure and riots of 1768. The colonists' opposition to these acts was well stated in the phrase "No taxation without representation", originally spoken by James Otis. Smugglers avoided the taxes by importing illegal goods and by organizing a boycott of the legitimate imports. Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty of Boston were notable supporters of this boycott. Economic pressure from the boycott caused several entities in Britain to press for repeal. Eventually, John Dickinson raised support to repeal the Revenue Acts by a series of 12 essays entitled "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania", addressing himself as "A Farmer". As of March 5, 1770, the same day as the Boston Massacre, the only act remaining was the tax on tea. The women of the colonies also contributed. They wove their own cloth and yarn, and helped in the boycott of British goods, and formed the Daughters of Liberty. The colonists were very outraged at this act, as John Hancock and other smugglers were negatively affected.
The Tea Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (13 Geo III c. 44, long title An act to allow a drawback of the duties of customs on the exportation of tea to any of his Majesty's colonies or plantations in America; to increase the deposit on bohea tea to be sold at the India Company's sales; and to empower the commissioners of the treasury to grant licences to the East India Company to export tea duty-free.), passed on May 10th, 1773.
Previously, the East India Company had been required to sell its tea exclusively in London on which it paid a duty which averaged two schillings and six pence per pound. Because of these duties the American market was almost entirely in the hand of smugglers. The East India company would now be allowed to export its tea directly to the colonies without paying the taxes it was paying in London "to export such tea to any of the British colonies or plantations in America, or to foreign parts, discharged from the payment of any customs or duties whatsoever", and instead only have to pay the Townshend import duty of three pence a pound.
This Act was intended to aid the company's finances, which were close to collapse because it was paying the British government £400,000 pounds per year, war and famine in India and economic weakness in European markets. Benjamin Franklin proposed to the British government the idea of eliminating the tax on tea as a way to help the East India company. Britain expected the colonists to be happy to be paying less for their tea. Before this Act, smugglers imported 900,000 tons of cheap foreign tea a year. The quality of the smuggled tea did not match the quality of the dutiable East Indian Tea of which the Americans bought 562,000 tons per year. The British government intended to give the East India Company an effective monopoly on tea imports to the Thirteen Colonies. The colonists knew the British wanted to coerce them from boycotting British goods, which hurt their economy. As a result, many just simply bought the tea.
Some colonists deemed the tea "unfavorable". Although the British tea was more appealing in taste, some Patriots began to drink tea produced in the colonies. This did not, however, achieve its expected result of damaging the British tea trade.
The East India Trading Company was a favored monopoly with a lobby in Parliament. Ultimately, this act led to widespread boycotts of tea throughout the colonies, and, eventually, to the Boston Tea Party where American colonists, believed to be the Sons of Liberty, dressed up like Native Americans and threw 342 crates of tea from the East India Company ships Dartmouth, the Eleanor, and the Beaver into Boston Harbor. In Britain, even those politicians considered friends of the colonies were appalled and this act united all parties there against the colonies. This act, and the retaliatory measures taken by the British government afterwards, united the colonies even more in their frustrations against Britain, and was one of the many causes of the American Revolution. The tax on the tea was a penny, while the average wage in New England was between one and two schillings per day. After the Boston tea party, Britain decided to close down the Boston Harbor until the tea was further paid for.
The Intolerable Acts or the Coercive Acts were names given by colonists in the Thirteen Colonies to a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774. The acts were met with outrage and resistance in the colonies and were important developments in the growth of the American Revolution.
Four of the five acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party of December 1773. Lord North said "The Americans have tarred and feathered your subjects, plundered your merchants, burnt your ships, denied all obedience to your laws and authority; yet so clement and so long forbearing has our conduct been that it is incumbent on us now to take a different course. Whatever may be the consequences, we must risk something; if we do not, all is over". The British government hoped these punitive measures would, by making an example of Massachusetts, reverse the trend of colonial resistance to parliamentary authority that had begun with the 1765 Stamp Act.
Many colonists viewed the acts as an arbitrary violation of their constitutional rights, and organized the First Continental Congress to coordinate their response.
Great Britain hoped that the Intolerable Acts would isolate radicals in Massachusetts and cause American colonists to concede the authority of Parliament over their elected assemblies. It was a calculated risk that backfired, however, because the harshness of some of the acts made it difficult for moderates in the colonies to speak in favor of Parliament. The acts unintentionally promoted sympathy for Massachusetts and encouraged colonists from the otherwise diverse colonies to form the First Continental Congress. The Continental Congress created the Continental Association, an agreement to boycott British goods and, if that did not get the Intolerable Acts reversed after a year, to stop exporting goods to Great Britain as well. The Congress also pledged to support Massachusetts in case of attack, which meant that all of the colonies would become involved when the American Revolutionary War began at Lexington and Concord.
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OMG this is so familiar from Grade 7 last year!! Pretty much the cause of each act was to gain more taxes. Sugar act placed taxes on stuff like sugar and molasses. Stamp act raised taxes on stamps, which made it more costly to get a newpaper or send a letter. Townshend act I cannot remember. Tea act put taxes on...what else but tea! and Intolerable Acts, I kind of forget what that was for. Pretty much ti was all taxation without representation. I guess you could say the cause of these Acts being created was to gain more taxes, and the effect was that the colonists became rebellious, and that's where The American Revolution came into play, and the Boston Tea Party incident. Hope this helps!
- Anonymous1 decade ago
Sugar Act (1764)- First Revenue raising act for Britain. It was supposed to place a high tax on sugar from the West Indies; however, the colonies rebelled forcing the crown to back down.
Stamp Act (1765)- A way of raising revenue for the military expenditure after the French and Indian War. It required a stamp on about 50 items. Britain believed it was a perfectly reasonable act. The colonists saw no need for it, and they felt it jeopardized their rights as Englishmen. It sparked the ideology of “No taxation without representation”.
Townshend Acts (1767)- It required the suspension of New York until they accepted the Quartering Act. They also created duties on colonial imports, which lead to colonial resistance.
Tea Act (1773)- It is a tax break on tea. Colonists were not buying tea due to the Revenue Act, and the East India Company needed money. The colonists did not see it as a tax break, and it did not go over well, led to Boston Tea Party.
Intolerable/Coercive Acts (April 1774) Britain’s response to the Boston Tea Party. The acts closed the Boston port, until the tea was paid for from the Tea Party. New Quartering Act issued, and forbid town meetings without governmental consent.
I hope this helps.
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- 4 years ago