Ting Lin asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

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Growing Rice and a Cholera Vaccine at the Same Time

Someday, rice plants might not only provide food but also a way to prevent cholera and other diseases.

Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. Today it is found mostly in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Current vaccines to protect against cholera must be kept in cold storage. The need for refrigeration limits use in poor countries.

But research in Japan may lead to rice plants that contain a cholera vaccine that does not need to be kept cold. So far, the research has been carried out only on mice. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States published the study earlier this month.。

Hiroshi Kiyono of the University of Tokyo and his team experimented with genetic material from the bacterium responsible for cholera. They placed it into the Kitaake rice plant.

Mice ate the genetically changed rice seeds as a powder. The report says the vaccine was not destroyed by stomach acid; instead, the animals developed antibodies against the cholera toxin. The scientists say the vaccine remained active even after being stored at room temperature for more than a year and a half.

People would take the vaccine as a drug that contains the powder.

Cholera is usually spread through water or food, in places where conditions are dirty and drinking water supplies are unsafe. Cholera infections are often mild. But some people develop severe cases.

The researchers say the experimental cholera vaccine produced reactions in the immune system and in areas of mucosal tissue. Mucosal surfaces include the mouth, nose and reproductive organs. Cholera as well as viruses like those that cause influenza and AIDS infect these areas.

The scientists have great hopes for rice-based vaccines as a way to protect large populations against mucosal infections. There would be no need for injection, since the vaccine would be taken by mouth.

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Yet scientists have tried for some time to make plant-based vaccines. Researchers in the United States have developed one for Newcastle disease in chickens, but so far there are no products for humans.

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At the same time, scientists have to deal with concerns about genetically engineered plants accidentally mixing with food crops.

Update 3:

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  • 1 decade ago
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    同時種大米和一種霍亂疫苗

    有一天,大米植物可以不僅提供食品,而且防止霍亂和其他疾病的一種方法。

    霍亂是一種腸的細菌的傳染病。今天它主要在非洲,亞洲和拉丁美洲被發現。防止霍亂的當今的疫苗必須被放在冷藏。在窮國的對冷藏限制使用的需要。

    但是在日本的研究可能導致包含不需要被保持冷的一種霍亂疫苗的大米植物。 迄今,研究只騎老鼠被進行。。在美國的國家科學院的行動這個月早些時候公佈研究。 東京和他的隊大學的Hiroshi Kiyono做來自對霍亂負責的細菌的遺傳學的材料試驗。 他們把它放進Kitaake 大米植物。

    滑鼠吃創始改變的大米種子作為粉。 報告說胃酸沒破壞疫苗; 相反,動物預防霍亂毒素發展抗體。那些科學家說甚至在被儲存在室溫超過一年半之後,疫苗保持活躍。人們將認為疫苗為包含粉的一種藥。霍亂透過水或者食品,在條件是臟的的地方通常被塗抹,飲用水的供應是不安全的。霍亂傳染病經常溫和。 但是一些人發展嚴厲的情況。

    在免疫的系統裡和穿mucosal 織物的地區生產回應,那些研究人員說實驗霍亂疫苗。 Mucosal 表麵包括嘴,鼻子和生殖器官。霍亂和象引起流感的那些一樣的病毒和愛滋病感染這些地區。那些科學家吃巨大的對基於大米的疫苗的希望作為保護大的人口以防mucosal傳染病的一種方法。將沒有適合注射需要,既然那些疫苗將花費嘴。然而科學家已經嘗試一段時間做基於植物的疫苗。在美國的研究人員已經對於紐卡斯爾雞的疾病來說發展一,但是迄今沒有人的產品。同時,科學家必須經營關心創始設計植物偶然與食品莊稼混合。

  • 1 decade ago

    增長的米和霍亂疫苗同時某天, 糧食作物也許不僅提供食物而且方式防止霍亂和其它疾病。霍亂是肚腑的細菌傳染。今天它被發現主要在非洲、亞洲和拉丁美洲。當前的疫苗保護免受霍亂必須被保留在冷藏。需要用於冷藏極限窮國。但研究在日本也許導致包含霍亂疫苗不需要被保持冷的糧食作物。到目前為止, 研究被執行了只對老鼠。國家科學院的行動在美國及早出版了研究這個月? Hiroshi Kiyono 東京和他的隊大學試驗了以基因從細菌負責任對霍亂。他們安置了它入Kitaake 糧食作物。老鼠吃了基因上被改變的米種子作為粉末。報告認為疫苗被胃酸未毀壞; 反而, 動物開發了抗體反對霍亂毒素。科學家說疫苗保留了活躍在被存放以後在室溫為更多比一年半。人們會採取疫苗作為包含粉末的藥物。霍亂通常被傳播通過水或食物, 在情況是骯髒的地方並且飲用水供應是不安全的。霍亂傳染經常是溫和的。但某些人民開發嚴厲案件。研究員說實驗性霍亂疫苗導致的反應在免疫系統和在黏膜組織區域。黏膜表面包括嘴、鼻子和再生器官。霍亂並且病毒喜歡那些導致流行性感冒並且愛滋病傳染這些區域。科學家有對rice-based 疫苗的巨大希望作為方式保護多人口免受黏膜傳染。有會是對射入的沒有需要, 因為疫苗會被採取以口。

    科學家設法得有一段時間了做基於植物的疫苗。研究員在美國開發了一為新堡疾病在雞, 但到目前為止沒有產品為人。同時, 科學家必須應付對基因上設計的植物的關心偶然地混合與食用農作物。

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