- 1 decade agoBest Answer
About Stephen - A Brief History of Mine
Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 (300 years after the death of Galileo) in Oxford, England. His parents' house was in north London, but during the second world war Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At eleven Stephen went to St Albans School, and then on to University College, Oxford, his father's old college. Stephen wanted to do Mathematics, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he did Physics instead. After three years and not very much work he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science.
Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no-one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973 Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and since 1979 has held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas, who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow, and then in 1663 by Isaac Newton.
Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.
His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel. Stephen Hawking has two popular books published; his best seller A Brief History of Time, and his later book, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays.
Professor Hawking has twelve honorary degrees, was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honour in 1989. He is the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes and is a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences.
Stephen Hawking continues to combine family life (he has three children and one grandchild), and his research into theoretical physics together with an extensive programme of travel and public lectures.
2007-12-19 22:29:19 補充：
- 1 decade ago
Had been born in January 8, 1942 in Oxford, that one day just is Galileo passed away for 300 years.Possible because he is born at the Second World War time, therefore specially was in a stew in childhood to the model.When his several years old not only likes making the mockup and the steamboat, but also has manufactured the very many different type war game with the classmate, reflected he studies and holds controls the thing the hope.This kind of hope urges him to study for the doctorate, and obtains the great achievements in the black hole and in the cosmogony research.
Hodgen 13, when four years old has set firm resolve to have to be engaged in the physics and the astronomy research.17 year old of that year, he tested the natural sciences scholarship, entered smoothly reads the Oxford University.After bachelor graduates he to change to Cambridge University to study for doctorate, the research cosmology.He discovered soon oneself suffered from has been able to cause the Lu gal thunder sickness which the muscle withered.Because doctor sickness was at a loss regarding this, at first he planned gives up be engaged in the research the ideal, but afterwards the aggravation of disease speed has reduced speed, he then again ascends the mood, overcomes all difficulties, stands from the setback, facing this time misfortune, continues to be infatuated with the research bravely.
The 70's, he and Penrose had proven the famous wonderful theorem, and won the Wolfe Prize for Physics together in 1988.He also proved the black hole area not to be able along with the time decay.In 1973, he discovered the black hole radiation the temperature and its quality are in reverse proportion, namely the black hole can because of radiate changes small, but the temperature can elevate actually, finally can have the detonation to vanish. The 80's, he starts to study the quantum cosmogony.By now his motion already had the problem, afterwards has accepted as a result of pneumonia puts on the trachea surgery, enabled him henceforth again to speak.Now his whole body paralysis, must depend on the electrically operated wheelchair to replace the both feet, not only speaks and writes must depend on the computer and the language synthesizer help, including reads also wants others to put down for him each page of paper booth on the table, lets him actuate the wheelchair to look by the page. The Hodgen life contribution in the theoretical physics research, by the reputation one of for now most outstanding scientists.His work including "Time Brief history" and "Black hole And Baby Universe As well as Thread".Although everybody thought he is extremely unfortunate, but he is actually sends in the science achievement in after him sickness obtains.He by reason of the firm and resolute unyielding will, has defeated disease, has created a miracle, also had proven the disability succeeds by no means barrier.He to the life the deep love and to the scientific research sincerity, is worth the younger generation studying.
- ,Lv 51 decade ago
Hawker was born in the vicarage of Charles Church, Plymouth, on December 3, 1803, the eldest of ten children. By the age of ten was already reading and writing poetry. He was educated at Liskeard Grammar School and Cheltenham Grammar School. As an undergraduate, aged 19, he was married to his godmother, Charlotte I'ans, aged 41. The couple spent their honeymoon at Tintagel in 1823, a place that kindled Hawker's life-long fascination with Arthurian legend and inspired him to write The Quest of the Sangraal. This marriage, along with a legacy, helped to finance his studies at Pembroke College, Oxford. He graduated in 1827 and won the 1827 Newdigate Prize for poetry.
He took Anglican orders in 1831, becoming curate at North Tamerton and then vicar of Morwenstow, where he remained throughout his life. When Hawker arrived at Morwenstow there had not been a vicar in residence for over a century. Smugglers and wreckers were apparently numerous in the area. A contemporary report says the Morwenstow wreckers "allowed a fainting brother to perish in the sea without extending a hand of safety."
His first wife Charlotte died in 1863 and the following year, aged 60, Hawker married Pauline Kuczynski, aged 20. The couple had three daughters. Hawker died in January 1875, having converted to the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed. He was buried in Plymouth's Ford Park Cemetery. His funeral was noteworthy because the mourners wore purple instead of the traditional black.