Almost all bike manufacturers offer a lifetime guarantee on the frame. If you don't crash it, a frame lasts for a very long time. I have seen old frames made of all the materials that are common today (of course, carbon is a relatively new material, but there are frames around from when carbon was first available to the consumer). Things like tires, tubes, and brake pads are consumables. You have to replace them when they wear out. Now, what's left? The components. The drive train will last a long time if the chain is replaced before it elongates. Same with the shifters.
So--how does all this stuff answer your question? All of the bikes made by the major manufacturers will last a long time if they aren't crashed and reasonable maintenance is performed. Go to any bike shop and look at road bikes that cost about $1000. Collect the brand names. You'll find Trek, Giant, Cannondale, Specialized, and a host of others. If you find the same brand in more than 2 bike shops, it's very likely to be