need help asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

[英文] 請幫我中文翻英文 (很急拜託!!)

請各位幫忙我翻譯以下文章

請不要用翻譯軟體

我有用過

可是句子太複雜的話他就翻的很爛

拜託英文高手幫我

謝謝^^

4.現代性大致上是以啟蒙時代或17世紀末為分界,隨著『啟蒙』和『工業革命』的來臨,導致社會、經濟和文化隨之變遷:市場經濟、個人主義、公共領域和大眾媒體發展,使人以進步(progress)作為理想和目標所在,現代性強調科學、進步、啟蒙。而aesthetic modernity指的是反抗所有的規範,形成於一次世界大戰後,對未來不再抱持樂觀的想法,認為未來是捉摸不定的、短暫無常的。人們漸漸不相信過去的歷史記憶,大戰結束後證明人類文明不會一直進步下去,反之,人類的進步反而會摧毀人類自身的文明。

Modernity 和aesthetic modernity是對立的關係,產生的背景不同,其目的主張也相異,由Modernity過渡到aesthetic modernity,從相信理性規範到反對理性規範,aesthetic modernity甚至還諷刺Modernity的理性規範,彼此對立,卻也因為有Modernity的歷史背景,才會形成aesthetic modernity。

B.

首先我們得先瞭解modernism and post-modernism的差異,兩者的差異在於主要的特質重新排列其先後次序,在modernism的主導特質在post-modernism變成次要的,並非兩者的cotent改變而有所區別。現在,當代藝術即使在形式上和舊式modernism全部相同,但在文化意涵上已有了改變,在二次大戰後某個年代,突然出現新的社會類型,post-modernism的出現和晚期消費資本主義或跨國資本主義的關係密切,post-modernism的背景使得人們的歷史感消失,而媒體傳播的大量資訊也加速了人們的hostorical amnesia。Jameson對post-modernism是否可抗拒消費資本主義的邏輯,抱持著懷疑的態度,因為post-modernism可複製、強化消費資本主義的基礎。

Jameson認為post-modernism有兩個重點,第一是對modernism的反動,第二,post-modernism利用商業的方式併吞了高級文化和通俗文化的界線。他認為post-modernism有兩個特徵,一是mimicry,,利用mimicry的方式打破文學作品的正規形式。為何會有mimicry形成?這是因為在一個不可能創新新風格的世界中,我們只能模仿已經死了/過去的風格。由於death of the subject,個人主義可能被當作一種意識型態。有人贊同個人主義的確在現在已經死亡;有人卻激進的認為資產階級的個人主體不曾存在過。Mimicry的目的是,渴望再經驗過去的世界,是a complex object。第二是schizophrenia,出自Lacan的觀點,認為精神分裂本質上是a language disorder,將精神分裂的經驗和語言系統連結,Lacan說的語言系統,和結構主義的內涵相同,認為語言具備signified、signifier和reference,但結構主義者不處理reference的問題,因為每個人的reference都不同,無法歸類劃分,因此結構主義者轉而處理signified和signifier的關係。結構主義認為signified的內在關係會產生meaningag-effect。而精神分裂症主要是signifier和signifier的關係解體。精神分裂者和我們認知世界的方式不同,我們認同世界的方式有「the I」 and「the me」 ,精神分裂者以空間感認知世界,他們沒辦法體會時間的流動,signifier在他們的感覺上變的更具體;而一般人對時間的流動較敏感,總是處在一個範圍更大的set of projects。

後現代是工業生產方式的改變,消費、服務業、知識經濟的興起,後現代性是指社會的某個階段或某種社會條件,和Postmodernity相互對話而非對立關係。後現代的生活、消費、文學、建築成為主流的文化。後現代不只是商品化、資訊、知識經濟、跨國企業等生產方式改變的後工業社會。也批判和顛覆權威,讓被壓抑的得以發聲,因此產生流動、含混的新空間。

在二次大戰後,人們知道缺乏一貫性的主體是一個既定的事實,因此主動追求多元文化,而不再感到焦慮。 因此後現代性不再強調英雄神話、族群或歐洲、性別、性向等中心主義、權威、以及大敘述,理性、科技等現代性強調的一致和規律、二元對立。強調差異、邊緣、流動、多元、含混、在地等被壓抑的小敘述。

3 Answers

Rating
  • 允聖
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago
    Best Answer

    4.Modernity on the whole is with early period of enlightenment or in 17th century end for boundary, along with"enlighten" with the approach of"Industrial Revolution", make society, economy and culture immediately changed:the media development of market economy, individualism, public realm and the public, make the person is ideal and target by progressing(progress), the modernity emphasizes science and progress, enlighten.And what aesthetic modernity point resist all standard and form after World War I and think that the future is unfathomable and brief and impermanent towards willing no longer embrace to entertain optimistic in the future of viewpoint, .People gradually don't believe past history memory and prove after fighting be over that mankind's civilization will not keep on progressing, whereas, the mankind's progress on the contrary will destroy the civilization of mankind's self.

    Modernity and aesthetic modernity are the relations of opposition, the output background is different, its purpose lays claim to dissimilitude also and transfer to aesthetic modernity from Modernity, from believe that the rational standard goes to oppose rational standard, the aesthetic modernity even still satirizes Modernity rational standard and stand opposite each other, but also because have Modernity history background, then will form aesthetic modernity.

    2007-12-15 22:59:04 補充:

    B.

    We have to understand the difference of the post-modernism of the modernism and first first, both of the difference lie in main characteristic to re- arrange it order of sequence, becoming the next in importance in the post-modernism in the modernism predominant characteristic,

    2007-12-15 22:59:43 補充:

    not both of the cotent change and have differentiation.Now, contemporary art even all similar to the old type modernism on the form, but have already had a change on the cultural import, after World War II a certain age, burst upon a new social type, appearance and later period of

    2007-12-15 22:59:52 補充:

    post-modernism consume the relation of capitalism or multinational capitalism closely, the background of the post-modernism makes people's history feeling disappear, and media dissemination of a great deal of information also accelerated people's hostorical

    2007-12-15 23:00:00 補充:

    amnesia.Jameson to whether post-modernism can resist logic of consuming the capitalism or not, embrace the attitude of[with] doubt, because the post-modernism can make duplicate, enhance the foundation of consumption capitalism.

    2007-12-15 23:02:18 補充:

    The Jameson thinks the post-modernism has two points, the first is the reaction, the second to the modernism, the post-modernism made use of a commercial way to annex deluxe culture with popular culture of boundary.He thinks the post-modernism

    2007-12-15 23:02:31 補充:

    has two characteristics, on ising a mimicry, , the way which makes use of mimicry breaks the regular form of literature work.Why would there is mimicry formation?This is because of in a world of impossible and creative new style, we can

    2007-12-15 23:02:57 補充:

    only copy have already died/past style.Because of the subject of the death of, the individualism possibility is regarded as 1 kind to realize a type.Someone's approving of individualism really has already died in now;Someone but radically think personal

    2007-12-15 23:03:07 補充:

    corpus of propertied class has never existed.Mimicry purpose BE, desire again experience past world is a complex object.The second is a schizophrenia, come from Lacan standpoint, think the schizophrenia is essentially the disorder of a language,

    2007-12-15 23:03:21 補充:

    linking experience and language system of schizophrenia, the Lacan says of language system, with the content homology of structuralism, think the language has signified, signifier and reference, but the structuralism doesn't handle a reference problem, everyone's references are all different,

    2007-12-15 23:04:46 補充:

    can't categorize demarcation, therefore knotting transnational corporation etc. mode of production change of the back is industrial society.Also criticize and overturn authority, let quilt suppress of can give out sound, so the creation flow, ambiguous new space.

    2007-12-15 23:04:55 補充:

    After World War II, people know the corpus which lacks of consistence is a decided fact, pursuing therefore and actively multicultural, and no longer feel anxious. Therefore behind the modernity no longer emphasizes hero myth, ethnicity or Europe,

    2007-12-15 23:05:08 補充:

    sex, aptitude etc. center doctrine, authority, and big description, reasonableness, science and technology etc. the modernity emphasize of consistent with the regulation, 2 dollars stand opposite.Emphasize difference, edge, flow, diverse, ambiguous, at ground etc.

    2007-12-15 23:05:13 補充:

    be suppressed of small description.

  • 1 decade ago

    皓呆

    從第一句翻譯就不太對

    你這部份的中文,應該是Haberams在談現代性的專文中之節錄,對其哲學概念不懂的根本無法幫你翻譯回去

    你可以直接回去找Habermas的英譯版,台灣許多大學的圖書館都有

  • 1 decade ago

    The modern age roughly is take the initiation time or 17 century's ends as a dividing line, while "initiation" and "Industrial Revolution" approaching, causes the society, the economy and the culture along with it vicissitude: The market economy, the individualism, the public domain and the populace media development, makes the person to progress (progress) to take the ideal and the goal are at, modern emphasis science, progress, initiation. But aesthetic modernity refers is revolt all standards, forms after a world war, no longer will embrace the optimistic idea to the future, thought the future will be unpredictable, is short variably. The people gradually did not believe the history remembered, after the war ends proved the human civilization cannot continuously progress gets down, otherwise, humanity's progress instead can destroy the human own civilizatn.

    Source(s): 嘿嘿=ˇ=
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