[英文]中文翻英文 (很急拜託!!)

請各位幫忙我翻譯以下文章

請不要用翻譯軟體

我有用過

可是句子太複雜的話他就翻的很爛

拜託英文高手幫我

謝謝^^

傳統Marxist解讀文學作品時,認為可從作品發現意識型態,而意識型態又可進一步分析其社會關係和生產力,傳統Marxist注重社會level的unity。透過Eagleton的解釋,傳統Marxist認為經濟關係是唯一的決定因素,但其實不然。

根據Eagleton的解釋,superstructure and infrastructure的關係中,mediation是造成兩者關係變化的關鍵。Marx曾舉例,說明現代人為何能欣賞古代的希臘藝術,要討論這個問題前,要先討論為何希臘人能產生第一流的藝術。因為當時的希臘社會仍處於不發達狀態,沒有資本主義的分工系統,因此也沒產生商品數量勝過質量的問題,人與自然間仍能達到協調,就是一種有限性質的協調。然而現代社會的資本主義打破了mediation,資本主義不斷的生產和消費,生產過量時就會超過社會的負荷限度,當社會失衡時superstructure and infrastructure的關係就瓦解了,「革命」就誕生了,這就是Marxism所強調的mediation。

Marxism主張文學是客觀的反映和存在,所以避開作者對作品的主觀影響。Lucas卻提出「形式」和「內容」,進一步討論作者對作品的影響。作品包含兩種要素:內容和形式。內容反映了當時社會生活經驗,形式則透露了意識型態,且意識型態包括三種層面,一是獨立的文學形式,二是統治階層的意識型態,三是體現作者與讀者的關係。形式加上內容就是unity。

Reflection認為作品反映社會意識,和自然主義不同的是,反映並非絕對客觀的反映,而是作者的主觀情感也影響作品,因此作品和作者的關係是互動的。Lucas討論以往Marxist從未討論的問題,深化了Marxism的文學理論。在Eagleton的解釋中,「內容」決定了「形式」,但「形式」也會影響「內容」。「庸俗Marxist」認為形式只是一種技巧,但他們缺忽略了「形式」受意識型態影響,「形式」是作者為了完整表達「內容」所找的「形式」,為了尋找最合適的「形式」來表達「內容」,因此「形式」就是意識型態,是人們的內在需求促成新的形式,作者在選擇「形式」時就是一種有意識的選擇,「內容」和「形式」並重,兩者都對作品發揮了一定的影響力。

1 Answer

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  • 允聖
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    When traditional Marxist read a literature work, thinking canned realize a type from the work detection, and realize a type and can analyze its social relation and productivity further, the traditional Marxist paid attention to the unity of social level.Through the explaining of Eagleton, the traditional Marxist thinks the economic relation is the only decision factor, but in fact and otherwise.

    According to the explaining of Eagleton, in the relation of the infrastructure of the superstructure and, the mediation is the key which causes both relate to variety.The Marx once gave examples, explaining modern people why can appreciate ancient Greece art, discuss this problem front, discuss first why the Greek can produce a first-rate art.Greece society at that time is still placed in not flourishing appearance, there is no the division of labour system of capitalism, so also do not produce the problem, person and natural that the merchandise amount excels quantity can still reach coordination, is a kind of coordination of limited property.However the modern social capitalism broke mediation, capitalism continuously of produce and consume, produce too much meeting exceed social burden limit, be society be out of balance the relation of the infrastructure of the superstructure and break up, "revolution" is born, this is the mediation that the Marxism emphasizes.

    2007-12-14 00:25:37 補充:

    The Marxism assertion literature is objective reflection and existence, so keep away author's subjective influence for work.Lucas but put forward "form" and"content", discuss author's influence to work further.The work includes two kinds of main factors:Content and form.

    2007-12-14 00:26:52 補充:

    The content reflected at that time social activities experience, the form then revealed a consciousness type, and realized the type includes three kinds of levels, on ising an independent literature form,

    2007-12-14 00:27:33 補充:

    two is the consciousness type of ruling class, three is a body now author's relationship with reader.Form's plusing a content is an unity.

    2007-12-14 00:27:43 補充:

    The Reflection thinks the society consciousness of the work reflection, different from the naturalism BE, reflect a not absolutely objective reflection, but the author's subjective emotion also influences a work,

    2007-12-14 00:28:02 補充:

    so the relation between work and author is interactive.The Lucas discusses the problem that the former Marxist has never discussed, turning Marxism literature theories deeply.In the explaining of Eagleton,

    2007-12-14 00:28:12 補充:

    "content" comes to a decision "form", but"form" will also influence "content"."Vulgar Marxist" thinks the form is just a kind of technique, but they lacked to neglect "form" to be subjected to consciousness type influence,

    2007-12-14 00:28:22 補充:

    "form" is author for the sake of integrity expression"content" find of"form", for looking for quite the cheese"form" to express "content", so"form" realize a type, is people's inside need to help realize a new form, author while choosing"form"

    2007-12-14 00:28:26 補充:

    is a kind of have intention to know of choice, "content" and"form" lays equal stress on, both all developed certain influence to the work.

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