Well, like the others I use three ring binders for loose patterns of all sorts. I also use magazine storage containers for booklets, small book patterns, and knitting magazines. I store all of these in a 6 ft bookcase, oh, who am I kidding, I have four of them upstairs in the living area for this and we will not discuss what's stored downstairs. For yarn, I have an antique blanket chest that was my husband's grandmothers, and I use the 56 gallon plastic storage boxes for the rest of it. No, we will not discuss how many of those I have either. But a bureau (high boy) might adequately hold your current stash, or a wicker chest used as a coffee table, or a cedar chest, or even a wicker clothes hamper for works in progress rather than a laundry basket. Soft options include the spring wire hampers, or tote bags (I collect these when I travel rather than t-shirts). The plastic drawer sets on wheels are good for storing small tools, hooks, and needles, too, as well as WIP, and can be kept next to your knitting chair. The surface is good for a book rest to hold your patterns for easy reading while you work, too.
When you put loose patterns into binders, though, let me suggest that you get page protector sleeves and keep them in these, too. The plastic sleeve keeps your pattern clean and make it easy to use sticky notes to keep your place on them, and you don't have to punch holes in the pattern itself either. Organize them into categorieswith dividers, hats, scarves, mittens/gloves, purses, toys, mens sweaters, womens sweaters, other accessories, and then in alphabetical order to make it easier to find. But if you are printing these down from on-line sources, honey, store them in a computer file into smaller files by pattern type. When the folder gets too big (trust me, you'll know, the CPU will bog down <G>, that you can ask about), and then burn them to a CD for the smallest amount of storage. Then print them out as you need them.
I have been knitting for 53 years.