Steven asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago





The word alcohol appears in English in the 16th century, loaned via French from medical Latin, ultimately from the Arabic al-kuḥl, meaning "collyrium", the name of very finely powdered antimony sulfide Sb2S3 used as an antiseptic and eyeliner. The powder was originally prepared by sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite in a closed vessel.

The introduction of the word to European terminology in alchemy dates to the 12th century, by Latin translations of works of Rhazes (865-925), who described the art of distillation.[citation needed] Bartholomew Traheron in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo introduces the word as a term of "barbarous" (Moorish) authors for "fine powder":

the barbarous auctours use alchohol, or (as I fynde it sometymes wryten) alcofoll, for moost fine poudre.

William Johnson in his 1657 Lexicon Chymicum glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium. By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine", the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia (1594) has vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum. Johnson (1657) glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat. The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" (ethanol) in the 18th century, and was again extended to the family of substances so called in modern chemistry from 1850.

The current Arabic name for alcohol is الكحول al-kuḥūl, re-introduced from western usage, while the Classical Arabic word is الغول al-ġawl (e.g. sura 37:47), literally "spirit" (the word al-ġawl is also the origin of the English word "ghoul", and the name of the star Algol).

2 Answers

  • 1 decade ago
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    字酒精出現在英語早在十六世紀,貸給途經法國,從醫療拉丁,最終從阿拉伯語基地kuḥl ,意思是" collyrium " ,其名稱很細的粉末銻硫化物sb2s3用來作為防腐劑和eyeliner 。粉末原本準備了昇華的天然礦物輝銻礦,在一個封閉的容器。

    引入這個詞,以歐洲術語煉金術日期到12世紀,由拉丁語翻譯作品臘澤斯( 865-925 ) ,他描述了藝術的昇華。 [引文需]巴塞洛繆traheron在他的第1543翻譯約翰的維哥介紹詞作為一個長遠的"野蠻人" (摩爾) ,作者為"細粉" :

    野蠻auctours使用酒精,或(正如我fynde它sometymes wryten ) alcofoll , moost罰款poudre 。

    威廉約翰遜在他的1657詞彙chymicum敷衍了事字作為antimonium sive銻。由此延伸,這個詞來指任何流體獲得的蒸餾法,其中包括"酒精酒" ,但本質上蒸餾酒。利巴菲烏斯在alchymia ( 1594 )已vini酒精vel vinum alcalisatum 。約翰遜( 1657 )一帶而酒精vini作為quando omnis superfluitas vini一酒separatur ,意大利ut斯達康accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur , nihilque fæcum奧地利phlegmatis中的fundo remaneat 。這個詞的意義變得局限於"精神酒" (乙醇) ,在18世紀,又被延伸至家庭中的物質,所謂在近代化學的,從1850年。

    目前阿拉伯語名稱為酒精是الكحول基地kuḥūl ,重新引進西方用法,而古典阿拉伯語單詞是الغول基地ġawl (如蘇拉37:47 ) ,從字面上來看, "精神" (這個詞基地ġawl也是原產地的英文字"家喻戶曉" ,而名字的明星算法語言) 。.

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