Can u please help me???
i have a project due on Dec. 6 nd my topic is oncology and i really need help as well does my friend!!!!!
so if u happen to kno anything on Oncology please help me!!! and my friend
Ok SO as u prolly alredy seen sum1 writin all weird nd typing all sloppy that was my friend she has issues typin i always tell her to stop but she doesnt!!!!
- 1 decade agoFavorite Answer
'''Oncology''' is the branch of medicine that studies [[tumors]] ([[cancer]]) and seeks to understand their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. A medical professional who practices oncology is an ''oncologist''. The term originates from the Greek ''ogkos'' (ογκος), meaning bulk, mass, or [[tumor]] and the suffix ''-ology'', meaning "study of".
The oncologist often coordinates the multidisciplinary care of [[cancer patient]]s, which may involve [[physiotherapy]], [[psychotherapy|counselling]], clinical [[genetics]], to name but a few. On the other hand, the oncologist often has to liaise with [[pathology|pathologist]]s on the exact biological nature of the [[tumor]] that is being treated.
Oncology is concerned with:
* The [[diagnosis]] of cancer
* Therapy (e.g. [[surgery]], [[chemotherapy]], [[radiotherapy]] and other modalities)
* Follow-up of [[cancer patient]]s after successful treatment
* [[Palliative care]] of patients with terminal malignancies
* [[Ethics|Ethical]] questions surrounding cancer care
* [[Screening (medicine)|Screening]] efforts:
** of populations, or
** of the relatives of patients (in types of cancer that are thought to have a hereditary basis, such as [[breast cancer]]).
== Diagnosis ==
The most important diagnostic tool remains the medical history: the character of the complaints and any specific symptoms ([[Fatigue (physical)|fatigue]], [[weight loss]], unexplained [[anemia]], [[fever of unknown origin]], [[paraneoplastic phenomena]] and other signs). Often a physical examination will reveal the location of a [[malignancy]].
Diagnostic methods include:
* [[Biopsy]], either incisional or excisional;
* [[Endoscopy]], either upper or lower gastrointestinal, bronchoscopy, or nasendoscopy;
* [[X-rays]], [[Computed axial tomography|CT scanning]], [[Magnetic resonance imaging|MRI scanning]], [[ultrasound]] and other radiological techniques;
* [[Scintigraphy]], [[Positron emission tomography]] and other methods of [[nuclear medicine]];
* [[Blood test]]s, including [[Tumor marker]]s, which can increase the suspicion of certain types of tumors or even be pathognomonic of a particular disease.
Apart from in diagnosis, these modalities (especially imaging by [[Computed axial tomography|CT scanning]]) are often used to determine [[surgery|operability]], i.e. whether it is [[surgery|surgically]] possible to remove a tumor in its entirety.
Generally, a "''tissue diagnosis''" (from a [[biopsy]]) is considered essential for the proper identification of [[cancer]]. When this is not possible, ''empirical therapy'' (without an exact diagnosis) may be given, based on the available evidence (e.g. history, x-rays and scans.)
Occasionally, a metastatic lump or pathological lymph node is found (typically in the neck) for which a primary tumor cannot be found. This situation is referred to as " carcinoma of unknown primary", and again, treatment is empirical based on past experience of the most likely origin.
It depends completely on the nature of the [[tumor]] identified what kind of therapeutical intervention will be necessary. Certain disorders will require immediate admission and [[chemotherapy]] (such as [[acute lymphocytic leukemia|ALL]] or [[acute myelogenous leukemia|AML]]), while others will be followed up with regular physical examination and [[blood test]]s.
Often, [[surgery]] is attempted to remove a [[tumor]] entirely. This is only feasible when there is some degree of certainty that the tumor can in fact be removed. When it is certain that parts will remain, curative surgery is often impossible, e.g. when there are [[metastasis|metastases]] elsewhere, or when the tumor has invaded a structure that cannot be operated upon without risking the patient's life. Occasionally surgery can improve survival even if not all tumour tissue has been removed; the procedure is referred to as "debulking" (i.e. reducing the overall amount of tumour tissue). Surgery is also used for the [[palliative]] treatment of some of cancers, e.g. to relieve biliary obstruction, or to relieve the problems associated with some cerebral tumours. The risks of surgery must be weighed up against the benefits.
[[Chemotherapy]] and [[radiotherapy]] are used as a first-line radical therapy in a number of malignancies. They are also used for [[adjuvant]] therapy, i.e. when the macroscopic tumor has already been completely removed surgically but there is a reasonable statistical risk that it will recur. [[Chemotherapy]] and [[radiotherapy]] are commonly used for palliation, where disease is clearly incurable: in this situation the aim is to improve the quality of and prolong life.
[[Hormone]] manipulation is well established, particularly in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.
There is currently a rapid expansion in the use of [[monoclonal antibody]] treatments, notably for [[lymphoma]] ([[Rituximab]]), and [[breast cancer]] ([[Trastuzumab]]).
[[Vaccine]] and other [[immunotherapy|immunotherapies]] are the subject of intensive research.
The application of ultrasound in the form of [[HIFU]] to solid tumors is under investigation.
== Follow-up ==
A large segment of the oncologist's workload is the following-up of cancer patients who have been successfully treated. For some cancers, early identification of recurrence, with prompt treatment, can lead to better survival and quality of life. It depends on the nature of the cancer whether the follow-up lasts a number of years or remains "life long".
== Palliative care==
Approximately 50% of all cancer cases in the Western world can be cured with radical treatment. For pediatric patients, that number is much higher. A large number of cancer patients will die from the disease, and a significant proportion of patients with incurable cancer will die of other causes. There may be ongoing issues with symptom control associated with progressive cancer, and also with the treatment of the disease. These problems may include [[Pain and nociception|pain]], [[nausea]], [[anorexia (symptom)|anorexia]], [[fatigue (physical)|fatigue]], immobility, and [[clinical depression|depression]]. Not all issues are strictly physical: personal dignity may be affected. Moral and spiritual issues are also important.