The former German colonies were allocated under League of Nations mandates to Britain, France, Japan and Australia.
The Turkish Empire was broken up , partly under League Mandates to Britain and France [Palestine, Lebanon, Syria] and the balance organised into independant Kingdoms: Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Transjordan and various large and small sheikdoms such as Kuwait and the Gulf States, Yemen and Oman. These were not European colonies - the mandated territories were administered by European powers but were not settled by them. The independant Kingoms and Sheikdoms were not colonies and were self governing but under British influence and later in the case of Saudi Arabia, American influence.
The Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires were not empires that had colonies as such but they did contain ethnic groups which succeeded on obtaining independance after WW1 under the Versailles Treaty, notably Poland , the Baltic States and Czechoslovakia. Poland and Finland had earlier declared independance from Russia at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution.