Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 藝術與人文詩詞與文學 · 1 decade ago

關於Hofstede學者

請問?Hofsteded的最初文獻要去哪裡找?

他出的書藉,分別是哪幾年及書名?

謝謝~

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Hofstede是一個文化學者,他在這領域以程式化,工程化地解決文化上的計量!

    他認為文化的概念可以被適用到在不同程度的社會系統,不只是國家.宗教團體.性別.職業或組織..,這些社會系統都有他們的”可蒐集程式化的意念” "collective programming of the mind" (in Hofstede's terms); 而Hofstede他自己研究的不只是國家或組織的層次!

      在他的1980年的著作"Cultural Consequences ",那是一本書,不是個理論,他以32與工作相關的值,以IBM1967年至1973年間在四十個國家的員工為樣本,用相關及因素加以分析;全部的資料庫總在兩個連續的回合中,共含有超過 116,000 的問題. 這些分析讓他可以達成以四個主要的特性分類:

    1. 權力差距(Power distance) (the extent to which the less powerful members of society accept that power is distributed unequally),

    2. 個人主義(Individualism) (people look after themselves and their immediate family only) vs 群集主義Collectivism (people belong to in-groups (families, clans or organizations) who look after them in exchange for loyalty,

    3. 男性主要價值 (Masculinity) (achievement and success) vs. 女性(Femininity)主要價值(caring for others and quality of life),

    4. 不確定性的避免(Uncertainty avoidance) (the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations.

    Source(s): www.ifi.uio.no/~systarb/ in460/doc/bangelorebookchapter.doc
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