HELP! A.P. European History reasarch paper helP!?

Hello, I am writing a reasearch paper concerning the bombing of Gurenica and I'm having some trouble finding information on it without Picasso especially books. Does anyone ahve a suggestion?



I jsut realized that I spelled reasearch wrong sorry for my typos.

Update 2:


1 Answer

  • 1 decade ago
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    This site will explain all ----

    The raid was called Operation Rügen and resulted in widespread destruction and civilian deaths in the Republican held town of Guernica, Basque Country. For over three hours, twenty-five or more of Germany's best-equipped bombers, accompanied by at least twenty more Messerschmitt and Fiat Fighters, dumped one hundred thousand pounds of high-explosive and incendiary bombs on the village, slowly and systematically pounding it to rubble.

    Two thirds of the approximately 40 to 50 tons dropped by the the German bombers were 500 and 250 kilogram high explosive bombs and 20 pound anti-personnel bombs; one third were 2 pound incendiary bombs. Approximately 1,654 people may have been killed and another 889 wounded in the attack, and reports indicate as much as 70 percent of the town was destroyed, with most of the rest heavily damaged. Fires ignited during the attack are reported to have burned for three days. Bombers from three squadrons at Burgos arrived over the target and commenced attacks in 20 minute time sequences for 2 hours and 30 minutes. This carpet bombing included the full range of high explosive and incendiary bombs.

    Guernica fell to General Francisco Franco's advancing army two days after the attack. The attack was widely seen as an atrocity at the time, and had long term repercussions for Franco's reputation. In a piece of particularly repugnant propaganda work, Nationalists advanced the false argument that the city had actually been set afire by the defenders in an attempt to create an atrocity for which the Nationalists would be blamed. Some of the claims, such as that by a professor of theology in Rome that the attack could not have been conducted by the Germans supporting the Nationalists as there were no Germans in Spain, were ridiculous on their face. Lieutenant Colonel von Richthofen is reported to have stated that the Renteria bridge over the Mundaca River at the edge of the town was the target in an attempt to cut off the retreat of Republican forces. The failure to hit the bridge has been widely cited by popular commentators as proof that the intent of the attack was to destroy the town, not the bridge. This reflects a basic ignorance of military capabilities in the 1930s.

    This attack was the first case of the deliberate destruction of a city in Europe by air attack, although it had little significant impact on the outcome of the Spanish Civil War, as the Nationalists had by this time a clear advantage in the fighting. However, bolstered by propaganda, it had a major effect on European thinking about the role of air attack against cities in modern war. Reflecting the view of the general public, Pablo Picasso's painting Guernica captures the perceived horror of the attack. However, the attack on Guernica also shaped the mind set of policy makers and reinforced the perception that aerial bombardment could destroy modern cities in a single attack with minimal warning. This lesson was repeated in the bombing of Warsaw in the first days of World War II.

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