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The Koopa Troopa (ノコノコ, Nokonoko?) is the most common classification of Koopa. Koopa Troopas are the standard troopers of the Koopa Army who work for Bowser, King of the Koopas. Koopa Troopas are all common Koopas, meaning they have no special abilities or characteristics. As the lowest ranking members of the Koopa Army, they just patrol their assigned areas on foot. If an enemy is referred to as just "Koopa" this usually means Koopa Troopa.
Koopa Troopas first appeared in the arcade game Mario Bros. under the name "Shellcreepers" as enemies that have to be flipped. In Super Mario Bros., they were renamed "Koopa Troopa", and Koopa Paratroopas, Koopa Troopas with wings, made their debut. They can be used as projectiles after they retreat into their shells. Super Mario World brought drastic changes to the Koopa Troopa. In this game, Koopa Troopas finally started walking on two legs and wearing shoes. Also, stomping on Troopas ejects them from their shells, rather than causing them to hide. An ejected Troopa will slide out of its shell, wearing only a t-shirt, and will crawl back to its shell after being temporarily stunned. In Super Mario 64 they wear boxers after being knocked out and then you can use their shells as skate boards.
The Paper Mario series introduces friendly Koopas that have their own towns, and are even rescued by Mario on occasions. An example of such a koopa is Koopa the Quick, first appearing in Super Mario 64, who races you in Bob-Omb Battlefield and Tiny-Huge Island. Generic Koopa Troopas have also appeared throughout the Mario Party series as NPCs. Like Toad, they are generally helpful towards the players, usually providing them with rewards or running mini-games. Single Koopa Troopas have been playable in Mario Kart games and various other sport games along with Paratroopas. Koopa Troopas were the most regularly-seen minions of Bowser in The Super Mario Bros. Super Show!, where they were voiced by John Stocker, and made one appearance in the Super Mario World animated series.Source(s): Wikipedia