I am studying for influenza virus.
I am confused how and what N spike. H spike, M1 priten, M2 protein. MA, HA, NP does.
I am so relieved, if some smart people out there can help me.
- GUIDOLv 41 decade agoFavorite Answer
H refers to haemaglutanin .. it recognizes a sialic acid based receptor on the surface of human cells.. therefore its required for receptor-mediated endocytosis of the virion, or simply viral entry. N refers to neuraminidase, an enzyme that comes into play when viral particles are assembled within the cell and are about to "exit". It cleaves sialic acid residues to prevent viral clumping and also promotes exocytosis.. so its crucial to allow new viral particles to leave a host. Remember influenza doesn't replicate in a host and bust through the cell membrane in large numbers.. they're assembled within, and bud out.. leaving the host intact but spreading rapidly.
M1 and M2 proteins are ion channel proteins that play an important role in regulating the pH of viral-endocytosed vesicle thats targeted for the lysosome. An important event happens when pH is lowered.. the structure of the nucleocapsid changes (as all things do when pH changes..) exposing the H protein.. it literally wedges into the lysosomal membrane and allows the virus to enter the cytoplasm. Very important stage that shouldn't be done prematurely... M1 and M2 are ion channels that kick out H+ ions from the early vesicle to maintain pH.
M1 and M2 have also been found to have affinity for nuclear import proteins, Ran and Importin. Research this if you like, but this may be how the viral nucleocapsid makes its way to and into the nucleus.
P1, P2, P3 are subunits for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The virus encodes and carries its on polymerase to make RNA copies of its RNA genome within the nucleus.
NP simply refers to the nucleoprotein ("nuclear content plus protein") that defines the virion.. its composed of 7 segmented minus stranded RNA molecules wrapped around the proteins aforementioned.. the assembly is collectively referred to as nucleoprotein.
hope this helps, interesting subject with lots of research done.
- 1 decade ago
Refer to Medical Microbiology - Greenwood
- 1 decade ago
Hi,only visit the Pub Med online for viewing all of those informations.