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MOMO asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

翻成中文不要用線上翻譯

Daniels's needs-based theory,as well as the difference criterion recognizing the needs of the least well-off within contractarian the-ory, lend support to a primary focus on meeting basic needs. Assess-ing who needs care may be both difficult and expensive ( Braybrooke 1987). Economic theory argues that expressed demand is the most ra-tional basis for allocating scarce medical care resources. Needs may,in fact,be quite subjective and ungovernable,unless constrained by some sense that people are willing to pay to have their tastes and preferences satisfied. Further,societal or professional consensus may be required to determine which needs to meet when resources are limited. Needs assessments have been an important component of public health-oriented planning and program development ac-tivities at the community level. Contemporary needs assessments focus on inventorying the assets,as well as the problems,that exist in the target communities of concern( Kretzmann and Mcknight 1993).

Indicators: Indicators of equity from the perspective of need attempt to assess the magnitude of health risks and health disparities in a population. Sometimes survey respondents are asked questions to obtain their subjective perceptions of the extent to which their needs have been met: During the past year, did you or a family member need to see a doctor but not see one for some reason? If so, why Other indicators of need summarize respondents ob-jective reports of the number of physician visits relative to the number of disability days they experienced in the year (i.e., the use-disability ratio ) or compare the number of people who actually contacted a physician for a set of symptoms with the number of people that a panel of physicians thought should have seen one (i.e., the symptoms-response ratio) ( Aday, Andersen, and Fleming 1980 ).

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    丹尼爾的基於需要的理論, 並且區別標準認可需要最少充裕在contractarian 理論之內, 借支持對一個主要焦點在會議基本的需要。估計誰需要關心也許是困難和昂貴的(Braybrooke 1987) 。經濟理論爭辯說, 表達的需求是為調撥缺乏衛生保健資源的最合理的依據。需要也許, 實際上, 相當主觀和ungovernable, 除非由一些感覺壓抑, 人們是願意支付有他們的口味並且特選滿意了。進一步, 社會或專業公眾輿論也許必需確定哪需要見面當資源是有限的。需要評估是公眾針對健康的計劃和項目發展活動一個重要組分在共用級別。當代需要評估集中於inventorying 財產, 並且問題, 存在在關心(Kretzmann 和Mcknight 1993) 的目標社區。顯示: 產權顯示從需要透視試圖估計巨大健康風險和健康差距在人口。有時勘測應答者被問問題獲得他們的需要適應程度的他們的主觀悟性: 在去年, 您或家庭成員需要看醫生但不看一由於種種原因嗎? 如果那樣, 為什麼他們體驗在該年需要的其它顯示總結醫師參觀的數量的應答者客觀報告相對傷殘天的數量(即, 使用傷殘比率) 或比較實際上與一位醫師聯繫為一套症狀以人數醫師想法盤區應該看見了一的人數(即, 症狀反應比率) (Aday 、Andersen, 和Fleming 1980) 。

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  • 1 decade ago

    丹尼爾斯的基于需要的理論, 以及在contractarian內認出最沒境遇好的的需要ory的差別標準,支持一主要集中于會議基本的需要。 需要小心的確定ing可能是既難又昂貴的(布雷布魯克1987)。 經濟理論表明表達的需求是用于分發不足的醫療護理資源最多ra-tional 基礎。 需要可以,實際上,十分主觀和不能控制, 除非以人願意支付滿足他們的口味和偏愛的一些辯別力強製。 更進一步,社會或者專業共識可能被要求確定當資源是有限的時,哪個需要見面。 需要評價一直是重要零部件是面向公共衛生計畫和ac-tivities計畫編製的的在那些水準社區時候。 當代需要評價集中于為資產開列清單, 以及那些問題,在關心(克雷茨曼和Mcknight 1993)的目標社區裡存在。

    指標︰ 來自需要的視角的公平的指標試圖在人口方面確定健康危險和健康不同的實例的大小。 有時調查回答者要求問題獲得他們的他們的需要已經被滿足的範圍的主觀的知覺︰ 在過去的一年,你還是一名家庭成員需要看病但不是由於一些原因看見一嗎? 如此, 為什麼其他指標的需要的總結報告的那些內科醫生的數量的回答者ob jective相對于那些生理殘障的數量訪問他們在這一年經歷的數天(即, 使用生理殘障比率)或者比較的數量誰實際上與聯繫給一套症狀與的數量一看見一個認為小組的人一起的一內科醫生的人們 症狀回應比率)(Aday, 安德森, 以及佛蘭芒1980)。

    Source(s): 沒用線上翻譯 但是有些用Dr.eye翻的
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