MOMO asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago


groups participation formulating and implementing policies and programs. Arnstein(1969)conceptualized a ladder of citizen partic-ipation,with each respective rung representing a gradient ranging from nonparticipation to toKenism to increased levels of citizen power and control.

2 Answers

  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    組參與闡述和實施政策和計畫。 阿恩史丹 ( 1969 ) 使梯子的公民partic概念化ipation,有每各自梯子橫木描述坡度分佈在從nonparticipation到toKenism的範圍內增加各級公權力並且控制。

  • 1 decade ago

    小組參與公式化和實施政策和節目。Arnstein(1969)conceptualized 公民參與梯子, 用各個各自階代表梯度範圍從nonparticipation 到toKenism 對公民力量和控制的增加的水平。

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