阿徹 asked in 藝術與人文歷史 · 1 decade ago


請問一下18 19 世紀的英國



3 Answers

  • 1 decade ago
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    The period between 1660 and 1785 was a time of amazing expansion for England — or for "Great Britain," as the nation came to be called after an Act of Union in 1707 joined Scotland to England and Wales. Britain became a world power, an empire on which the sun never set. But it also changed internally. The world seemed different in 1785. A sense of new, expanding possibilities — as well as modern problems — transformed the daily life of the British people, and offered them fresh ways of thinking about their relations to nature and to each other. Hence literature had to adapt to circumstances for which there was no precedent. The topics in this Restoration and Eighteenth Century section of Norton Topics Online review crucial departures from the past — alterations that have helped to shape our own world.

    One lasting change was a shift in population from the country to the town. "A Day in Eighteenth-Century London" shows the variety of diversions available to city-dwellers. At the same time, it reveals how far the life of the city, where every daily newspaper brought new sources of interest, had moved from traditional values. Formerly the tastes of the court had dominated the arts. In the film Shakespeare in Love, when Queen Elizabeth's nod decides by itself the issue of what can be allowed on the stage, the exaggeration reflects an underlying truth: the monarch stands for the nation. But the eighteenth century witnessed a turn from palaces to pleasure gardens that were open to anyone with the price of admission. New standards of taste were set by what the people of London wanted, and art joined with commerce to satisfy those desires. Artist William Hogarth made his living not, as earlier painters had done, through portraits of royal and noble patrons, but by selling his prints to a large and appreciative public. London itself — its beauty and horror, its ever-changing moods — became a favorite subject of writers.


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    The sense that everything was changing was also sparked by a revolution in science. In earlier periods, the universe had often seemed a small place, less than six thousand years old, where a single sun moved about the earth, the center of the cosmos.

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    Now time and space exploded, the microscope and telescope opened new fields of vision, and the "plurality of worlds," as this topic is called, became a doctrine endlessly repeated.

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    The authority of Aristotle and Ptolemy was broken; their systems could not explain what Galileo and Kepler saw in the heavens or what Hooke and Leeuwenhoek saw in the eye of a fly. As discoveries multiplied, it became clear that the moderns knew things of which the ancients had been ignorant.

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    This challenge to received opinion was thrilling as well as disturbing. In Paradise Lost, Book 8, the angel Raphael warns Adam to think about what concerns him, not to dream about other worlds.

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    Yet, despite the warning voiced by Milton through Raphael, many later writers found the new science inspiring. It gave them new images to conjure with and new possibilities of fact and fiction to explore.

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    Meanwhile, other explorers roamed the earth, where they discovered hitherto unknown countries and ways of life. These encounters with other peoples often proved vicious.

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    The trade and conquests that made European powers like Spain and Portugal immensely rich also brought the scourge of racism and colonial exploitation.

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    In the eighteenth century, Britain's expansion into an empire was fueled by slavery and the slave trade, a source of profit that belied the national self-image as a haven of liberty and turned British people against one another.

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    Rising prosperity at home had been built on inhumanity across the seas. This topic, "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Britain," looks at the experiences of African slaves as well as at British reactions to their suffering and cries for freedom.

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    At the end of the eighteenth century, as many writers joined the abolitionist campaign, a new humanitarian ideal was forged. The modern world invented by the eighteenth century brought suffering along with progress. We still live with its legacies today.

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  • 小刁
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago

    [編輯] 起源

    漢諾瓦王朝是德國布朗史維希王朝的分支之一,因此又稱為布朗史維希王朝漢諾威分支。漢諾威王朝和布朗史維希王朝的前身,都是韋爾夫王朝,祖先最早可以追溯到薩克森及巴伐利亞公爵獅子公爵亨利。而亨利的幼子威廉成為呂訥堡公爵(Herzog von Lüneburg)。


    [編輯] 漢諾威


    [編輯] 漢諾威選帝侯


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  • claire
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago


    1. 《格列佛遊記》於1726年問世之後,立即震驚了當時的英國社會,也震動了世界文壇,出版後一星期,所有存書便被搶購一空。在倫敦,不論男女老幼,不論宮廷、官邸還是酒吧、小店,人人都在讀這部書,到處都在議論這部書。自出版以來,它被翻譯成數十種文字,成為世界各國文學愛好者的常備書,而書中的小人國和大人國的故事更是婦孺皆知。


    2. 《傲慢與偏見》是奧斯丁的代表作。這部作品以日常生活為素材,一反當時社會上流行的感傷小說的內容和矯揉造作的寫作方法,生動地反映了18世紀末到19世紀初處於保守和閉塞狀態下的英國鄉鎮生活和世態人情。這部社會風情畫式的小說不僅在當時吸引著廣大的讀者,時至今日,仍給讀者以獨特的藝術享受。而且至今,根據這部名著改編的電影電視作品也不下十幾部不過其間佳作甚少。或許,只有1948年版本的《傲慢與偏見》算是能給我們留下些許的印象,影片在各方面都稱得上有不錯的表現,而且在電影之外還有膾炙人口的音樂得以流傳。

    3. 19世紀30、40年代英國現實主義發展迅速。 其特點是::


    ②②典型是現實主義創作的核心。典型化和個性化不可分割,每個典型又是“這一個”。巴爾紮克在《人間喜劇》的序言中說:“不僅僅是人物,就是生活上的主要事件,也用典型表達出來。有在形形色色的生活中表現出來的處境,有典型的階段,而這就是我刻意追求的一種準則。”別林斯基認為果戈理的小說是“現實在其全部真實性上的再現 。在這裏 ,關鍵在於典型”。

    ③具有強烈的批判性或揭露性,特別注重描繪社會的黑暗和醜惡現象,以及社會下層、“小人物”的悲慘遭遇 。



    狄更斯的小說描寫了英國資本主義社會日益尖銳的勞資矛盾,揭示了下層人民的悲慘命運和資產階級的偽善。薩克雷的《名利場》等小說,淋漓盡致地揭露了19世紀初英國社會中追名逐利 、腐化墮落等醜惡行徑 。蓋斯凱爾夫人的《瑪麗•巴登 》 、C.勃朗特的《簡•愛》 、哈代的《 德伯家的苔絲》,都是英國現實主義的名作。70、80年代後蕭伯納、高爾斯華綏等作家,運用社會心理小說和社會諷刺戲劇的形式,對英國社會的政治、道德、宗教和文化等方面都作了有力的揭露和批判。

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    2007-11-14 09:29:40 補充:

    期刊文學是應廣大讀者的要求而興起。斯梯爾與艾迪生兩人有首創之功。前者創辦《閒談者》報 (1709~1711) ,後者繼出《旁觀者》報(1711~1712),將街談巷議和俱樂部裏的風趣幽默寫上了期刊。艾迪生的文筆尤見典雅。後來笛福、斯威夫特、菲爾丁、詹森、哥爾德斯密斯等名家都曾主編期刊或為期刊撰稿,可見此風之盛。由於他們的努力,英國式的隨筆得到進一步的提高,題材更廣泛,文筆也更靈活。

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    Source(s): 網路資料+書本
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