阿徹 asked in 藝術與人文歷史 · 1 decade ago

18世紀的英國

請問一下18 19 世紀的英國

他的社會風氣大概是怎樣

那道德觀念又是如何?

3 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
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    The period between 1660 and 1785 was a time of amazing expansion for England — or for "Great Britain," as the nation came to be called after an Act of Union in 1707 joined Scotland to England and Wales. Britain became a world power, an empire on which the sun never set. But it also changed internally. The world seemed different in 1785. A sense of new, expanding possibilities — as well as modern problems — transformed the daily life of the British people, and offered them fresh ways of thinking about their relations to nature and to each other. Hence literature had to adapt to circumstances for which there was no precedent. The topics in this Restoration and Eighteenth Century section of Norton Topics Online review crucial departures from the past — alterations that have helped to shape our own world.

    One lasting change was a shift in population from the country to the town. "A Day in Eighteenth-Century London" shows the variety of diversions available to city-dwellers. At the same time, it reveals how far the life of the city, where every daily newspaper brought new sources of interest, had moved from traditional values. Formerly the tastes of the court had dominated the arts. In the film Shakespeare in Love, when Queen Elizabeth's nod decides by itself the issue of what can be allowed on the stage, the exaggeration reflects an underlying truth: the monarch stands for the nation. But the eighteenth century witnessed a turn from palaces to pleasure gardens that were open to anyone with the price of admission. New standards of taste were set by what the people of London wanted, and art joined with commerce to satisfy those desires. Artist William Hogarth made his living not, as earlier painters had done, through portraits of royal and noble patrons, but by selling his prints to a large and appreciative public. London itself — its beauty and horror, its ever-changing moods — became a favorite subject of writers.

    很有用的網站

    2007-11-14 13:01:29 補充:

    The sense that everything was changing was also sparked by a revolution in science. In earlier periods, the universe had often seemed a small place, less than six thousand years old, where a single sun moved about the earth, the center of the cosmos.

    2007-11-14 13:01:36 補充:

    Now time and space exploded, the microscope and telescope opened new fields of vision, and the "plurality of worlds," as this topic is called, became a doctrine endlessly repeated.

    2007-11-14 13:01:48 補充:

    The authority of Aristotle and Ptolemy was broken; their systems could not explain what Galileo and Kepler saw in the heavens or what Hooke and Leeuwenhoek saw in the eye of a fly. As discoveries multiplied, it became clear that the moderns knew things of which the ancients had been ignorant.

    2007-11-14 13:02:04 補充:

    This challenge to received opinion was thrilling as well as disturbing. In Paradise Lost, Book 8, the angel Raphael warns Adam to think about what concerns him, not to dream about other worlds.

    2007-11-14 13:02:23 補充:

    Yet, despite the warning voiced by Milton through Raphael, many later writers found the new science inspiring. It gave them new images to conjure with and new possibilities of fact and fiction to explore.

    2007-11-14 13:02:36 補充:

    Meanwhile, other explorers roamed the earth, where they discovered hitherto unknown countries and ways of life. These encounters with other peoples often proved vicious.

    2007-11-14 13:02:50 補充:

    The trade and conquests that made European powers like Spain and Portugal immensely rich also brought the scourge of racism and colonial exploitation.

    2007-11-14 13:02:53 補充:

    In the eighteenth century, Britain's expansion into an empire was fueled by slavery and the slave trade, a source of profit that belied the national self-image as a haven of liberty and turned British people against one another.

    2007-11-14 13:03:01 補充:

    Rising prosperity at home had been built on inhumanity across the seas. This topic, "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Britain," looks at the experiences of African slaves as well as at British reactions to their suffering and cries for freedom.

    2007-11-14 13:03:13 補充:

    At the end of the eighteenth century, as many writers joined the abolitionist campaign, a new humanitarian ideal was forged. The modern world invented by the eighteenth century brought suffering along with progress. We still live with its legacies today.

    2007-11-14 13:07:45 補充:

    另個有用的網站

    2007-11-14 13:08:38 補充:

    另個有用的網站

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  • 小刁
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago

    [編輯] 起源

    漢諾瓦王朝是德國布朗史維希王朝的分支之一,因此又稱為布朗史維希王朝漢諾威分支。漢諾威王朝和布朗史維希王朝的前身,都是韋爾夫王朝,祖先最早可以追溯到薩克森及巴伐利亞公爵獅子公爵亨利。而亨利的幼子威廉成為呂訥堡公爵(Herzog von Lüneburg)。

    布朗史維希王朝呂能堡分支,經過多年發展後,在1692年成為漢諾威選侯國。自此以後,王室人員以國為姓氏,改稱為漢諾威分支,亦即是漢諾威王朝。

    [編輯] 漢諾威

    參見:漢諾瓦統治者列表

    [編輯] 漢諾威選帝侯

    1692年,哈布斯堡王朝的神聖羅馬皇帝利奧波德一世,委任布朗史維希-呂能堡公爵為第9位世襲選帝侯,是為漢諾威選帝侯,以增加哈布斯堡王室成員當選皇帝的勝算機會。自此以後,布朗史維希-呂能堡公爵及其後代便以封國為姓,改姓漢諾威。

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  • claire
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago

    我覺得文學作品可以深刻的反應出現實社會的種種~~參考吧!!

    1. 《格列佛遊記》於1726年問世之後,立即震驚了當時的英國社會,也震動了世界文壇,出版後一星期,所有存書便被搶購一空。在倫敦,不論男女老幼,不論宮廷、官邸還是酒吧、小店,人人都在讀這部書,到處都在議論這部書。自出版以來,它被翻譯成數十種文字,成為世界各國文學愛好者的常備書,而書中的小人國和大人國的故事更是婦孺皆知。

    《格列佛遊記》在一般人的心中仿佛是一本兒童讀物,其實不然,書中神奇的想像、誇張的手段、寓言的筆法,固然是一般兒童讀物普遍的特點,但《格列佛遊記》是以其傑出的諷刺而垂名世界文學史的。本書主要描寫了1699年外科醫生格列佛隨“羚羊號”出航南太平洋,不幸中途遇險,格列佛死裏逃生,漂到小人國,從此,開始了一系列的奇遇。小說通過格列佛在利立浦特(小人國)、布羅卜丁奈格(大人國)、勒皮他(飛島國)和慧駰國的奇遇,反映了18世紀前半期英國社會的一些矛盾,揭露並批判了英國統治階級的腐敗和罪惡及英國資產階級在資本主義原始積累時期的瘋狂掠奪和殘酷剝削。

    2. 《傲慢與偏見》是奧斯丁的代表作。這部作品以日常生活為素材,一反當時社會上流行的感傷小說的內容和矯揉造作的寫作方法,生動地反映了18世紀末到19世紀初處於保守和閉塞狀態下的英國鄉鎮生活和世態人情。這部社會風情畫式的小說不僅在當時吸引著廣大的讀者,時至今日,仍給讀者以獨特的藝術享受。而且至今,根據這部名著改編的電影電視作品也不下十幾部不過其間佳作甚少。或許,只有1948年版本的《傲慢與偏見》算是能給我們留下些許的印象,影片在各方面都稱得上有不錯的表現,而且在電影之外還有膾炙人口的音樂得以流傳。

    3. 19世紀30、40年代英國現實主義發展迅速。 其特點是::

    ①它偏重對現實的客觀的、具體的、歷史的描寫,強調人物和環境之間的現實關係。

    ②②典型是現實主義創作的核心。典型化和個性化不可分割,每個典型又是“這一個”。巴爾紮克在《人間喜劇》的序言中說:“不僅僅是人物,就是生活上的主要事件,也用典型表達出來。有在形形色色的生活中表現出來的處境,有典型的階段,而這就是我刻意追求的一種準則。”別林斯基認為果戈理的小說是“現實在其全部真實性上的再現 。在這裏 ,關鍵在於典型”。

    ③具有強烈的批判性或揭露性,特別注重描繪社會的黑暗和醜惡現象,以及社會下層、“小人物”的悲慘遭遇 。

    ④在藝術形式和表現手法上,以生活本身的形式反映生活為其基本形式,但不局限於這一形式。它具有廣闊的審美可能性,不排除採用假定、誇張、荒誕、變形、意識流等多種手法。它重視社會分析,包括心理分析。探索人的複雜內心世界的心理描寫,是它的藝術特徵之一。

    ⑤思想基礎一般為資產階級的人道主義。譴責社會黑暗,同情下層人民的苦難與不平等地位,但一般未觸及社會矛盾和現實關係的真正根源。

    狄更斯的小說描寫了英國資本主義社會日益尖銳的勞資矛盾,揭示了下層人民的悲慘命運和資產階級的偽善。薩克雷的《名利場》等小說,淋漓盡致地揭露了19世紀初英國社會中追名逐利 、腐化墮落等醜惡行徑 。蓋斯凱爾夫人的《瑪麗•巴登 》 、C.勃朗特的《簡•愛》 、哈代的《 德伯家的苔絲》,都是英國現實主義的名作。70、80年代後蕭伯納、高爾斯華綏等作家,運用社會心理小說和社會諷刺戲劇的形式,對英國社會的政治、道德、宗教和文化等方面都作了有力的揭露和批判。

    2007-11-14 09:29:26 補充:

    補充~~~

    18世紀前半葉,英國社會安定,文學上崇尚新古典主義,其代表者是詩人蒲柏。他運用英雄偶句體極為純熟,擅長寫諷刺詩,但以發洩私怨居多。表現出啟蒙主義精神的主要是散文作家,他們推進了散文藝術,還開拓了兩個文學新領域,即期刊隨筆和現實主義小說。

    2007-11-14 09:29:40 補充:

    期刊文學是應廣大讀者的要求而興起。斯梯爾與艾迪生兩人有首創之功。前者創辦《閒談者》報 (1709~1711) ,後者繼出《旁觀者》報(1711~1712),將街談巷議和俱樂部裏的風趣幽默寫上了期刊。艾迪生的文筆尤見典雅。後來笛福、斯威夫特、菲爾丁、詹森、哥爾德斯密斯等名家都曾主編期刊或為期刊撰稿,可見此風之盛。由於他們的努力,英國式的隨筆得到進一步的提高,題材更廣泛,文筆也更靈活。

    2007-11-14 09:29:58 補充:

    更具英國特色而又對歐洲大陸產生重大影響的則是散文小說。笛福的《魯濱孫飄流記》(1719)、《摩爾•弗蘭德斯》(1722)等書把水手和女僕當做英雄人物來介紹,細節寫得十分逼真,雖然書的結構鬆散,作者卻有娓娓動聽的說故事的本領,使讀者始終保持興趣。他的文字口語化,善於繪聲繪形,而又迅捷有力。這些特點,加上笛福對英國城鄉諸色人等的深刻瞭解,使他奠定了英國現實主義小說的基礎。斯威夫特的《格利佛遊記》(1726)是以諷刺朝政、表現人類的醜惡為目的的寓言,然而作為故事,也是十分引人入勝。他把現實細節放在十分奇特的幻想的情景之中,而幻想也是正在發展中的英國小說所需要的。

    2007-11-14 09:30:18 補充:

    世紀中葉,理查遜用書信體小說細緻地描寫遭遇不幸的少女的內心,以《克拉麗莎》(1747~1748)等大部頭小說感動了一整代英國和西歐的讀者,法國啟蒙思想家狄德羅稱之為偉大創造力的表現。但在菲爾丁的眼裏,理查遜只是市儈哲學的代表,於是他起而用仿作去諷刺之,其結果卻掌握了寫小說的藝術,於是有了他自己的創作,其中最受稱道的是《棄嬰托姆•鐘斯的故事》(1749),它的人物、風景、場面都是典型的英國式的。作者歌頌真誠、熱心、忠實而又不受傳統束縛的青年男女,全書有一種爽朗、清新的空氣,而又結構完整,把現實主義小說推進到了一個新的水準。

    2007-11-14 09:30:33 補充:

    當時及稍後還有斯摩萊特、哥爾德斯密斯、斯特恩等人的小說,或擴充了題材,或實驗了新寫法,都有建樹,因此雖然世紀末出現了渲染神秘恐怖的“哥特小說”,但是現實主義已經成為英國小說中的主流,繼續向前發展。

    Source(s): 網路資料+書本
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