STAGES OF CHANGE
Containerization, from the port perspective, has been viewed largely in terms of revolutionary technological changes in cargo handling, and quite rightly so. The objective of port containerization, in its earlier stages, was to better the productivity of cargo handling. Born of the need to reduce the turn –around of ships in port, containerization had as one of its main targets the improvement of cargo throughput. Indeed, a major advantage of containerization over conventional cargo-handling systems lies in its ability to transfer cargo at a much faster rate from land to ship and from ship to shore.
New cargo-handling methods and modifications of terminal facilities characterized the entry of ports into the containerization era. In the United States, and the Far East, the late 1960s and the early 1970s were years in which almost all major ports constructed newly equipped terminals. Large, high-speed gantry cranes, with a lifting capacity of 30—40 tons, replaced the conventional 3—5 ton loading / unloading gear. Various types of straddle carriers became a dominant factor in yard operations, nearly ousting the conventional fork lift, which previously had been given the main burden of sorting and organizing the cargo before its loading or after its discharge. The new equipment, together with the unitization of cargo handling and the construction of specialized terminals, dramatically improved port productivity and transformed the port industry from being labour intensive to capital intensive. Within less than a decade, technological progress in handling cargo in ports transformed the recurrences of ship congestion and long waiting times to a port-industry characterized by overcapacity.
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Containerization, 從港透視, 主要被觀看了根據革命技術變化在貨物上相當確實處理, 和如此。港containerization 宗旨, 在它的早期, 將改善生產力貨物處理。負擔需要減少輪- 船在口岸,
containerization 有作為它的扼要目標的當中一個貨物生產量的改善。的確, containerization 常規貨物處理的系統主要好處在在它的能力轉移貨物以更加快速的速度從土地到船和從船到岸。
終端設施的新貨物處理的方法和修改描繪了口岸詞條入containerization 時代。在美國、和遠東、60 年代後期和70 年代初期是幾乎所有主要口岸最近被修建裝備終端的幾年。大, 高速臺架起重機, 以30-40 噸舉的容量, 替換了常規3-5 噸裝貨/卸載齒輪。各種各樣的型跨立載體成為了一個統治因素在圍場操作, 幾乎驅逐常規鏟車, 早先被給了排序和組織貨物的主要負擔在它的裝貨之前或在它的放電以後。新設備, 與貨物處理和建築一起專業終端, 巨大改善的港生產力的unitization 和變換港產業從是勞力密集的對資本密集。在較少之內比十年, 技術進展在處理貨物在口岸變換了船壅塞和久等待時間再現對口岸產業為超負荷描繪。