The importance of fully understanding the source of competitive advantage (and in particular the role of intangible added value) in the domestic market before moving into foreign environments is recognised in a number of studies. For example, Simpson and Thorpe (1995) in devising their PLIN model for global expansion of speciality retailing suggest that retailers need to understand fully the role of product, lifestyle, image and niche in creating a differential advantage in the domestic market, before attempting to move overseas. The ability to offer host market consumers a source of differentiation in the delivery of added value is a key factor in international success. Burt (1991) suggested that the international activities of European grocery retailers appeared to be more successful if the internationalization process involved the importation of a new concept- such as the hypermarket or limited line discount store-to the host market. Once the source of this competitive and differential advantage is recognised, a key issue then becomes whether to replicate or modify the operation on entering a foreign market. Dupuis and Prime (1996) introduce the idea of business distance, as the gap between host and home environments in four areas: consumer behaviour; outlet or store format; networks; and environment. They argue that any retail format has a grounded history, built up over years of operation in the home environment, and thus the ``fit'' within the host environment needs to be fully understood. Without this understanding, ``the decision to export a retail format to another cultural environment may drastically modify its initial competitive advantage''. Illustrations of the problems of ``fit'' are provided by authors such as Tordjman (1988), Shackleton (1996), and O'Grady and Lane (1997) who discuss how French, British and Canadian retailers have found cultural and business behaviour differences when operating in the US market.
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充分地瞭解源泉的競爭優勢(和特別是無形的淨增值的角色的重要性) 在國內市場上在搬入外國環境之前被認可在一定數量的研究中。例如, Simpson 和Thorpe (1995) 在構想他們的PLIN 模型為全球性擴展專長零售建議販商需要充分地瞭解產品、生活方式、圖像和適當位置的角色在創造有差別的好處在國內市場上, 在試圖之前行動國外。能力提供主人市場消費者源泉的分化在淨增值交付是一個關鍵系數在國際成功。Burt (1991) 建議歐洲雜貨販商的國際活動看來是更加成功的如果國際化過程介入了一個新概念的進口譬如大型超級市場或有限的線折扣存放對主人市場。一旦源泉的這競爭和有差別的好處被認可, 一個主要問題那麼成為是否複製或修改操作在進入外國市場。Dupuis 和Prime (1996) 介紹企業距離想法, 作為空白在主人和家庭環境之間在四個區域中: 消費者行為; 出口或商店格式; 網路; 並且環境。他們爭辯說, 任一個零售格式有地面歷史, 被加強結束歲月操作在家庭環境, 並且"因而合適" 在環境需要充分地被瞭解的主人內。沒有這理解, "決定對其它文化環境出口一個零售格式也許猛烈地修改它最初的競爭優勢' ' 。問題的例證"適合" 由談論的作者提供譬如Tordjman (1988), Shackleton (1996), 和O'Grady 和Lane (1997) 怎麼法國, 英國和加拿大販商發現了文化和企業行為區別當經營在美國市場上。Source(s): 網頁翻譯