Anonymous asked in Politics & GovernmentGovernment · 1 decade ago

What are the rights and responsibilities given to us in the 11th amendment? what does this amendment mean?

i have to do a project, but i don't quite understand the meaning, rights and responsibilities, that this amendment presents the American people/ system with, thanks!

2 Answers

  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    The amendment was passed after the ruling of the United States Supreme Court in Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. 419 (1793), that federal courts had the authority to hear cases in law and equity against states by private citizens, and that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from suits made by citizens of other states. Thus, the amendment clarified Article III, Section 2 of the original Constitution, which gave diversity jurisdiction to the judiciary to hear cases "between a state and citizens of another state."

    Although the amendment's text does not by its own terms include suits brought by a citizen against his own state, the Supreme Court has held since Hans v. Louisiana 134 U.S. 1 (1890)) that the Amendment reflects a broader principle of sovereign immunity. As Justice Kennedy stated in Alden v. Maine (1999):

    “ [S]overeign immunity derives not from the Eleventh Amendment but from the structure of the original Constitution itself....Nor can we conclude that the specific Article I powers delegated to Congress necessarily include, by virtue of the Necessary and Proper Clause or otherwise, the incidental authority to subject the States to private suits as a means of achieving objectives otherwise within the scope of the enumerated powers. ”

    The dissenting view, which has the support of four sitting justices, is that the states surrendered their sovereign immunity when they ratified the Constitution (and certainly when they ratified the Fourteenth Amendment). The dissenters read the text of the Amendment as reflecting only a narrow form of sovereign immunity, limiting diversity jurisdiction of the federal courts, and they do not believe the structure of the Constitution insulates states from suits by individuals.

    Sovereign immunity jurisprudence confers on non-consenting states immunity from suit for money damages or other equitable relief. Nonetheless, federal courts may enjoin state officials from violating federal law under Ex parte Young (1908). Furthermore, the Supreme Court has held that Congress, under the enforcement provision of the Fourteenth Amendment, may abrogate state immunity from suit. See, e.g., Fitzpatrick v. Bitzer, 427 U.S. 445 (1976). Also, in Central Virginia Community College v. Katz (2006), the Court narrowed the scope of its previous sovereign immunity rulings, and held that the Bankruptcy Clause of Article I abrogated state sovereign immunity.

    [edit] Proposal and ratification

    Congress proposed the Eleventh Amendment on March 4, 1794.[1] The following states ratified the amendment:

    New York (March 27, 1794)

    Rhode Island (March 31, 1794)

    Connecticut (May 8, 1794)

    New Hampshire (June 16, 1794)

    Massachusetts (June 26, 1794)

    Vermont (November 9, 1794)

    Virginia (November 18, 1794)

    Georgia (November 29, 1794)

    Kentucky (December 7, 1794)

    Maryland (December 26, 1794)

    Delaware (January 23, 1795)

    North Carolina (February 7, 1795)

    Ratification was completed on February 7, 1795. The amendment was subsequently ratified by South Carolina (December 4, 1797).

  • 5 years ago

    I could do the same thing to your lord and savior. You know the cigar hider, Bill Clinton. The perjurer and so on and on. Have a nice day. BTW, I don't like Bush either, he is far far too liberal for me.

Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.