how was the Philippine revolution started?
- gatitaLv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
The Philippine Revolution (1896-1898) was an armed conflict between the Katipunan organization and Spanish colonial authorities, which sought Philippine independence from Spain.
When the Revolution began in 1896, Spain had been ruling the Philippine Islands for over three centuries. Power was centered around the colonial government in Manila and the Church, although in reality it was a frailocracia, --the Dominican friars exercising more power than the civilian government due to the stringent control of the Church over the populace. Because of the imposition of excessive taxes and forced labor on the indios (as the Filipinos were called), several revolts occurred in the middle and latter part of the 19th century, all without success. The Spaniards implemented the age-old strategy of divide et impera - divide and rule. The government would conscript Filipino troops from the Tagalog provinces to suppress a revolt in the Ilocos, and would quell a Visayan uprising largely with the help of troops recruited from Pampanga province. This caused hatred and discord among the indios who were never to unite until the late 19th century.
A combination of external and internal factors precipitated the revolution. The archipelago was opened to foreign trade during the mid-19th century, aided by the launching of the Suez Canal in 1869. Along with the import of goods came an inflow of Western thought, such as the pursuit of liberty and independence. Schools, organizations, literature and other means fostering these ideals were considered subversive and banned by the colonial administration and the entrenched frailocracia. The Filipinos who were influenced by these liberal concepts were the same people who benefited from foreign trade--the ilustrados, members of the prosperous merchant class who sent their sons to study at universities in Spain and elsewhere in Europe. Many of these students, chief among them José Rizal and Graciano López Jaena, would organize a reform organization, called the Propaganda Movement.
The internal factor was the execution of three Filipino priests. During the mid-19th century, a campaign was initiated by Father Pedro Pelaez calling for the “naturalization” of Filipino parishes--the turnover of churches to native-born Filipinos. After Pelaez’s death in an earthquake, the crusade was led by Fathers Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora.
The frailocracia was adamantly opposed to reforms and looked for pretext to arrest the trio. They had their opportunity when a mutiny in the fort in Cavite was aborted. Although the rebellion was led by a disaffected military officer and did not involve the priests, the civil government and church hierarchy nonetheless accused them of conspiracy. After a swift trial, the priests--known collectively and posthumously by the acronym Gomburza--were executed by garrote in February 17, 1872, at Bagumbayan in Manila. The sympathetic archbishop of Manila refused the order that they be defrocked and instead directed the pealing of church bells as a sign of mourning.
The execution enraged many Filipinos, and years later, an ilustrado by the name of José Rizal would later acknowledge this as the one event that changed his life.
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