Private First Class (1 stripe) (PFC)
Corporal (2 stripes)(Cpl.)
Sergeant (3 stripes)(Sgt.)
1st lieutenant (1 gold bar)(Lt.)
2nd lieutenant (1 silver bar) (Lt.)
Captain (2 silver bars) (Capt.)
Major (gold oak leaf cluster) (Maj.)
Lieutenant Colonel (silver oak leaf cluster) (Lt. Col.)
Colonel (eagle) (Col.)
Brigadier General (1 gold star) (Br. Gen.)
Major General (2 gold stars) (Maj. Gen)
Lieutenant General (3 gold stars) (Lt. Gen.)
General (4 gold stars) (Gen.)
General of the Army (5 gold stars)
There are various ratings in the rank of sergeant, Master Sergeant, Sergeant Major, Technical Sergeant, etc. I'm not sure about the stripes on the various ratings except Sergeant Major, that's 3 stripes with the points pointing to the shoulder, and three stripes underneath.
I've never seen an abbreviation of a 5 star general's rank, there aren't many. During WWII we only had Ike and MacArthur.