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The neme of the perspective uesd to draw map that show a cross section of an area?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    I'm not sure I understand what you are looking for, but this is the wikipedia piece on TOPOGRAPHICAL maps. Further down in the article is a special section of USA topo maps.

    Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features,[1] [2]

    The Centre for Topographic Information provides this definition of topographic map:

    "A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground."

    However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief (contours) is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly (and erroneously, in the technical sense) called "topographic." According to Cartographer's Kraak and Ormeling,

    "Traditionally, the main division of maps is into topographic and thematic maps. Topographic maps supply a general image of the earth's surface: roads, rivers, buildings, often the nature of the vegetation, the relief and the names of the various mapped objects."

    The study or discipline of topography, while interested in relief, is actually a much broader field of study which takes into account all natural and man made features of terrain.

    [edit] History

    Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of landmark and landscape information.[3] This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789.[4] Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements (thus the name and history of the United Kingdom's Ordnance Survey).[5] As such, elevation information was of vital importance.

    As they evolved, topographic map series became a basic national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function which had been shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.[6] [7]

    [edit] Uses

    Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; earth sciences and many other geographic disciplines; mining and other earth-based endeavours; and recreational uses such as hiking or, in particular, orienteering, which uses highly detailed maps in its standard requirements.

    [edit] Map conventions

    The various features shown on the map are represented by conventional signs or symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads. These signs are usually explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet.[8]

    Topographic maps are also commonly called contour maps or topo maps. In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5° grid, they are often called topo quads (or quadrangles).

    Topographic maps conventionally show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude (isohypse). In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level.

    There are several rules to note when viewing topographic maps:

    The rule of V's: sharp-pointed vees usually are in stream valleys, with the drainage channel passing through the point of the vee, with the vee pointing upstream. This is a consequence of erosion.

    The rule of O's: closed loops are normally uphill on the inside and downhill on the outside, and the innermost loop is the highest area. If a loop instead represents a depression, some maps note this by short lines radiating from the inside of the loop, called "hachures".

    Spacing of contours: close contours indicate a steep slope; distant contours a shallow slope. Two or more contour lines merging indicates a cliff.

    Of course, to determine differences in elevation between two points, the contour interval, or distance in altitude between two adjacent contour lines, must be known, and this is given at the bottom of the map. In most cases, contour intervals are consistent throughout a map. Sometimes dashed contour lines are present; these represent half the noted contour interval.

    These maps usually show not only the contours, but also any significant streams or other bodies of water, forest cover, built-up areas or individual buildings (depending on scale), and other features and points of interest.

    Today, topographic maps are prepared using photogrammetric interpretation of aerial photography. Older topographic maps were prepared using traditional surveying instruments.

    Source(s): Wikipedia
  • 5 years ago

    Is this question a joke? Ok well if not...then: "Why do whites keep ridiculing us Indians?" I don't think it's a race issue at all. Well personally I would not have done it, but since it is over, there is no use lamenting what has already happened... What's done is done. I think the friendship can perhaps be saved, if that's what you want... but maybe you should just give it some time for everything settle down so to speak? Also, if she was really laughing, well she is not a professional art student or a respectful friend, so I would "dump" her. That's just one girl's opinion! Good luck :)

  • 5 years ago

    If you want to discover ways to bring the perfect picture all that's necessary is time and Realistic Pencil Portrait Mastery guide from here https://tr.im/KIfVB to stay the best path.

    The lessons from Realistic Pencil Portrait Mastery guide contain 208 pages and an overall total of 605 illustrations.  The fundamental approach applied is that you start with a photo, bring a mild outline of the function, and then shade it in.

    Realistic Pencil Portrait Mastery is the perfect allied to help make the perfect draw.

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