Hypertension is sustained elevation of resting systolic BP (≥ 140 mm Hg), diastolic BP (≥ 90 mm Hg), or both. Hypertension with no known cause (primary; formerly, essential hypertension) is most common. Hypertension with an identified cause (secondary hypertension) is usually due to a renal disorder. Usually, no symptoms develop unless hypertension is severe or long-standing. Diagnosis is by sphygmomanometry. Tests may be done to determine cause, assess damage, and identify other cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment involves lifestyle changes and drugs, including diuretics, β - blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and Ca channel blockers.
Essential hypertension refers to high blood pressure with no identifiable cause.
Malignant hypertension is usually defined as very high blood pressure with swelling of the optic nerve behind the eye, called papilledema (grade IV Keith-Wagner hypertensive retinopathy). Malignant hypertension is usually accompanied by other organ damage like heart failure, kidney failure, and hypertensive encephalopathy.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) can be caused by using a chemical substance, drug, or medication. It can also be caused by stopping a drug or medication.
Renovascular hypertension is high blood pressure due to narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to the kidneys. It is a form of secondary hypertension.
Hypertensive heart disease is a late complication of hypertension (high blood pressure) in which the heart is affected.
Lifestyle changes may help control your blood pressure:
* Lose weight if you are overweight. Excess weight adds to strain on the heart. In some cases, weight loss may be the only treatment needed.
* Exercise regularly.
* Eat a healthy diet. Eat less fat and sodium. Salt, MSG, and baking soda all contain sodium. Eat more fruits, vegetables, and fiber.
* Avoid smoking.
* If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar under control.
Please see the web pages for more details on Hypertension.