asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

[急]段落英翻中 (今天內)

請勿用翻譯軟體 謝謝!因為我實在翻太慢了QQ

Gender differences in science, in favor of boys, have been attributed by many authors to factors such as girls' lack of exposure to science-related activities outside the classroom (Kahle & Lakes, 1983), decrease in girls' science ability perception over the school year (Jovanovich & King, 1998), gender biases of teachers with respect to strategies for asking questions and fielding answers (Greenfield, 1997), cultural influences from society and school (Kelly, 1988), gender differences in spacial abilities (Gray, 1981), cognitive abilities (Meyer & Koehler, 1990), and mathematics background (Sells, 1976).

Kahle et al. (1993) argued that neither macrolevel frameworks suggested by international studies nor causal models developed in mathematics provide an adequate paradigm to guide gender and science research. They developed a model of the relationship between gender and science in schools based on interactions between six factors: (a) student behavior in the science classroom, (b) teacher behavior in the science classroom, (c) observable student outcomes, (d) student beliefs/attitudes, (e) teacher beliefs/attitudes, and (f) previous experience in sociocultural educational context for teachers and students. However, Kahle et al. clearly indicated the need for still more research to analyze specific relationships among and within factors of the model.

Regarding gender differences in science achievement, the need for more detailed analysis is indicated in many studies (e.g., Comber & Keeves, 1973; DeMars, 1998; Erickson & Erickson, 1984; Murphy, 1982; Saner, Klein, Bell, & Comfort, 1994; Walford, 1980). For example, Erickson and Erickson (1984) indicated that "a good understanding of the nature and pattern of performance differences is important in order that we may attempt to explain them and thus to suggest ways of improving science education for girls" (p. 63).

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  • 1 decade ago
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    有許多作家把男生在科學上比較有利的性別差異歸因於許多因素,像是女生很少在教室外從事跟科學有關的活動(kahle & Lakes,1983),女生在科學上的理解能力逐年遞減(Jovanovich & King,1998),老師對於發問及回答問題會因性別有差異(Greenfield,1997),被社會上的文化及學校影響(Kelly,1988),性別差異在技能上所佔的地位(Gray,1981),認知能力(Meyer & Koehler,1990),數學背景(Sells,1976).

    Kahle et al.(1993)爭論並不是國際上的研究被無謂的結構所建議也不是那些一般的研究模式所提供的適當的範例去引導性別及科學的研究.他們發展出一種以在學校互動上為基礎的六種介於性別及科學上的模式的因素(a)學生在科學教室裡的行為(b)老師在科學教室裡的行為(c)觀察學生的結果(d)學生的認知/態度(e)老師的認知/態度(f)老師及學生在受文化影響前的經驗.然而,Kahe et al.明確的指出仍需要在這些模式下的因素做更多的研究跟分析具體的關係.

    關於在科學上更多在性別差異上的細節分析已經在許多研究中被表示出(e.g., Comber & Keeves, 1973; DeMars, 1998; Erickson & Erickson, 1984; Murphy, 1982; Saner, Klein, Bell, & Comfort, 1994; Walford, 1980).例如,Erickson and Erickson (1984)指出在本質及行為的形式上有好的理解

    因為在上班所以...沒有翻完...因為不知道你的主題是什麼跟什麼有關~所以也只能用判斷的

    希望有幫到你

    Source(s): 自己
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  • 1 decade ago

    性別差異在科學, 在恩惠的男孩, 有是歸因於以許多作者到因素如此如同girls'缺少的曝光到科學-有關的行動外面這教室 (Kahle&湖,1983), 減少量在女孩子的科學才幹知覺結束學年 (Jovanovich&國王,1998), 性別偏見的老師關於戰略為了要求問題和暴曬於場上回答 (Greenfield,1997), 文化的影響從社會和學校 (凱利帽,1988), 性別差別在裡面的場所才幹 (灰色,1981), 認識才幹 (邁耶&Koehler,1990), 和數學背景 (推銷,1976).

    Kahle外星人舷梯. (1993) 說服那個兩者都不macrolevel架構建議以國際性的學習也不原因模型發展在數學提供一適量範例到嚮導性別和科學研究. 他們發展模型的有關係的之間性別和科學在求學依據相互作用之間6個因素: (一) 學生舉止在這科學教室, (b) 老師舉止在這科學教室, (c) 顯著的學生結果, (d) 學生信仰/態度, (e) 老師信仰/態度, 和 (f) 先前經驗在社會文化教育的文章脈絡為了老師和學生. 然而,Kahle外星人舷梯. 明顯地指出這種必要於更研究分析明確的關係在中間和不越出因素的模型.

    看待性別差別在裡面的科學成就,這種必要於更詳細分析被指出在許多的學習 (例如, 梳毛機&大木桶,1973 DeMars,1998 Erickson&Erickson,1984個馬鈴薯,1982個神智清明的,Klein, 鈴,&安慰,1994 Walford,1980). 譬如,Erickson和Erickson (1984) 指出那個 "一好的了解的這自然和模型的表演差異是重要的在訂購那個我們可能企圖到解釋他們和如此到建議路的改進科學教育為了女孩子" (p. 63).

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