Anonymous
Anonymous asked in Arts & HumanitiesHistory · 1 decade ago

India and Pakistan?

do india and pakistan Have conflicts? coz my teacher said he will test me on this two....topic is conflict among countries...so do this 2 have conflicts? where can i get more info abt it?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Pakistan and India have deep-rooted differences dating back to early 1900's. When the British invaded India they followed the policy of Divide-and-Rule. Muslims and Hindus had lived in harmony for ages. They were the two major communities in the United India. The British started to favor Hindus and ignore Muslims, they would not allow a single opportunity to create differences among the two communities pass by. The Hindus became greedy of more power and over time their attitude towards Muslims changed. The British later on hinted at planning to leave India for good. The transfer of power was an issue that worried the Muslims. They did not wanted Hindus to get the absolute power since that would give them a license to increase their brutalities towards Muslims. A freedom struggle was launched and Muslims were granted a separate homeland where Muslim-majority areas existed in India (resulting in East Pakistan- now Bangladesh- and West Pakistan - now Pakistan). The partition was unfair in many ways. It was biased in favor of India. Critical areas and areas contiguous to Pakistan were given away to India ignoring geographical realities.

    At the time of partition there were also several autonomous states under the rule of princes (thus called Princely States) which were told to accede to either Pakistan or India. All but four states' fate was decided.

    One of them (Hyderabad) decided to remain independent after its initial decision to accede to Pakistan was challenged by India on the pretext of geographical restrictions. India forcefully captured Hyderabad months after independence and before the Nizam of Hyderabad (the ruler) could make a petition before the UN Security Council.

    The twin states of Junagadh and Manawadar were on the coast of India less than 300km from the then capital of Pakistan - Karachi. They decided to accede to Pakistan. The Indian Navy besieged the two states before the Pakistan Navy could reach them and in an operation that was publicized as a LIBERATION OPERATION, they forcefully took control of the two states months after independence. Pakistan made an official petition before the UNSC that is still pending. The issue is not raised much.

    The Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir was sold by the British to a Sikh Ruler Raja Dahir. The state was largely Muslim. The people of the state wanted to accede to Pakistan while the ruler was in favor of India. Under severe public pressue he approached the Indian Government for a military action. They pursued him to sign an instrument of accession and invaded the state of Jammu and Kashmir through the areas of Ferozpur and Gurdaspur in 1948 (unfairly given to India since they were geographically contigious to Pakistan). This triggered the FIRST WAR BETWEEN THE TWO NATIONS. The place where the Indian Army was finally halted is the Line of Control that divides the state between the Pakistan held (Liberated Kashmir or Azad Kashmir as the Pak Govt calls it) and Indian Occupied regions. The Indian Army fearing their operation may backfire more, filed a petition in the UNSC. The UNSC ordered immediate ceasefire (LoC is also called Ceasefire Line) and a plebiscite to know the wishes of the population of the state. No such plebiscite has ever been held there by the Indian Government. The largely Muslim population that wanted to accede to Pakistan even several years after the UNSC orders is now finally tired. They now want an Independent Kashmir or a Kashmir that is no longer divided by an LoC.

    India is also held widely responsible for causing an uprising against West Pakistan in East Pakistan. The general elections in 1970 in Pakistan resulted in Sheikh Mujib of East Pakistan gaining a majority. But the set-up was rigged and Z. A. Bhutto of West Pakistan was instated as the Prime Minister. This incited mass riots in East Pakistan and the fragile conditions of East Pakistan worsened further. India got hold of this opportunity and offered complete military assistance to East Pakistan to enable it to declare independence. The whole issue was severely mishandled by the administrative and military set-up in Pakistan and the Pakistan Forces had to face humiliation when 91,000 soldiers surrendered in East Pakistan.

    Despite several peace talks the main hurdle between the resolution of issues and differences remain largely the minds of Indians polluted by a wave of media in the past that had them brainwashed against Pakistanis, the hardliners on both sides of borders and Indian extremists who have been notorious to create chaos and mayhem whenever its something involving Muslims or Pakistan.

    The conditions are now improving and people are now becoming more aware of ground realities. They are now coming out of the biased history that's been fed to them and are now seeing things from a more unbiased persepective.

    =========================

    Wars fought between Pak and India:

    -->1948 Kashmir War [ceasefire ordered shortly]

    -->1965 Kashmir War [ceasefire ordered - Pakistan remained in a stronger position. 6th Sept celebrated as Defense of Pakistan Day]

    -->1971 Fall of East Pakistan [aided by Indian Forces]

    -->1998 Kargill Operation [in Kashmir region]

    ============================

    CORE CONFLICT ISSUES

    --> Kashmir Issue

    --> Siachen Issue [Siachen Glacier is the world's highest battlefield and part of the Kashmir-Tibet region]

    --> Disputed dams being built by India in the Kashmir Valley that would stop water critical for irrigation in Pakistan.

    --> Other trivial issues like war prisoners, maritime prisoners including fishermen, etc.

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    India and Pakistan were one country. While making India independent the British colonists continued the divide and rule policy ( created and nurtured for some time ) between the Hindu and Muslim religious groups and bifurcated the country into two parts The Muslim Pakistan and secular India .The natural consequence have been some territorial claims and border delimitation problems. The day these erstwhile brothers come together there won't be any conflicts they both can progress. Warm greetings for our Pakistani brothers.

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  • 1 decade ago

    Yes they have had three wars since their independence. The main conflict is religion and territory. India is majority Hindu with about 150 million Muslims. Pakistan is almost all Muslim.

    When England gave them their independence the English made the border between the two countries directly through the Muslim population. Now the Muslims in Pakistan want all the Muslim lands in India to go to Pakistan because the population of those areas are majority Muslim and the territory is potentially valuable. India does not want to give up any of it's territory to an aggressive foreign power run by an unelected military dictatorship.

    England knew that they would cause a problem by putting the border where they did and they did it on purpose. The goal of the English strategy was to have India and Pakistan constantly fighting so that England could retain more influence in the area. They have employed this divisive strategy in almost all of their former colonies.

    Good luck with your class.

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  • Sami V
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    They always had since the time of separation and independence and continue to have them. They fought many wars in the name of liberating Kashmir - an area further divided with 1/3 under Pak control and 2/3 with India. In one of the wars, Pakistan lost control of East Pakistan which is now a separate nation called Bangladesh. In its entire history, India has never invaded another country; otherwise when the present Pakistani president, as an army officer then, created what we call the Kargil conflict, India was on the verge of taking full control of Pakistan. In any event, Pakistan's existence as a separate nation is doubtful and it is only a matter of time before it is further dissected or eliminated!

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  • 1 decade ago

    do you mean in history? if so, yes there was religious conflict between those two countries.. india was hindu and pakistan was muslim.. but if you mean now, i would search for it on google, because i am unaware of conflict now.. good luck!

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  • 1 decade ago

    Each is a large, populous nuclear-equipped state claiming territories occupied by the other. They have fought before, and probably will again.

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  • 4 years ago

    Yeah, they do have conflicts over several political issues. You may google for further info on it

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  • XIII
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago

    Yes, they do.

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