Need good online sources for a presentation of the Fall and Decline of the Roman Empire?
With my luck, I have a presentation in 2 days on the "Fall and Decline of the Roman Empire"... I google'd stuff about it but it gives me alot of stuff that is irrelevant... I was wondering if any of you know any online sources, preferably scholar that includes on this subject.
- ✩♥EE-LAY-NA♥✩Lv 41 decade agoFavorite Answer
The Decline of the Roman Empire, also called the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, is a historical term of periodization for the end of the Western Roman Empire. Edward Gibbon, in his famous study The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776), was the first to use this terminology, but he was neither the first nor the last to speculate on why and when the Empire collapsed. It remains one of the greatest historical questions, and has a tradition rich in scholarly interest. In 1984, German professor Alexander Demandt published a collection of 210 theories on why Rome fell.
The traditional date of the fall of the Roman Empire is September 4, 476 when Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire was deposed by Odoacer. Many historians question this date, noting that the Eastern Roman Empire continued until the Fall of Constantinople in 29 May 1453. Some other notable dates are the Battle of Adrianople in 378, the death of Theodosius I in 395 (the last time the Roman Empire was politically unified), the crossing of the Rhine in 406 by Germanic tribes after the withdrawal of the legions in order to defend Italy against Alaric I, the death of Stilicho in 408, followed by the disintegration of the western legions, the death of Justinian I, the last Roman Emperor who tried to reconquer the west, in 565, and the coming of Islam after 632. Many scholars maintain that rather than a "fall", the changes can more accurately be described as a complex transformation. Over time many theories have been proposed on why the Empire fell, or whether indeed it fell at all.
I got it from here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decline_of_the_Roman_...
Historiographically, the primary issue historians have looked at when analyzing any theory is the continued existence of the Eastern Empire or Byzantine Empire, which lasted for about a thousand years after the fall of the West. For example, Gibbon implicates Christianity in the fall of the Western Empire, yet the eastern half of the Empire, which was even more Christian than the west in geographic extent, fervor, penetration and sheer numbers continued on for a thousand years afterwards (although Gibbon did not consider the Eastern Empire to be much of a success). As another example, environmental or weather changes affected the east as much as the west, yet the east did not "fall."
Theories will sometimes reflect the particular concerns that historians might have on cultural, political, or economic trends in their own times. Gibbon's criticism of Christianity reflects the values of the Enlightenment; his ideas on the decline in martial vigor could have been interpreted by some as a warning to the growing British Empire. In the 19th century socialist and anti-socialist theorists tended to blame decadence and other political problems. More recently, environmental concerns have become popular, with deforestation and soil erosion proposed as major factors, and destabilizing population decreases due to epidemics such as early cases of bubonic plague and malaria also cited. Global climate changes of 535-536 caused by the possible eruption of Krakatoa in 535, as mentioned by David Keys and others, is another example. Ideas about transformation with no distinct fall mirror the rise of the postmodern tradition, which rejects periodization concepts (see metanarrative). What is not new are attempts to diagnose Rome's particular problems, with Satire X, written by Juvenal in the early 2nd century at the height of Roman power, criticizing the peoples' obsession with "bread and circuses" and rulers seeking only to gratify these obsessions.
One of the primary reasons for the sheer number of theories is the notable lack of surviving evidence from the 4th and 5th centuries. For example there are so few records of an economic nature it is difficult to arrive at even a generalization of the economic conditions. Thus, historians must quickly depart from available evidence and comment based on how things ought to have worked, or based on evidence from previous and later periods, on inductive reasoning. As in any field where available evidence is sparse, the historian's ability to imagine the 4th and 5th centuries will play as important a part in shaping our understanding as the available evidence, and thus be open for endless interpretation.
The end of the Western Roman Empire traditionally has been seen by historians to mark the end of the Ancient Era and beginning of the Middle Ages. More recent schools of history, such as Late Antiquity, offer a more nuanced view from the traditional historical narrative.
- DrIGLv 71 decade ago
You have received a number of excellent answers. Use them but give credit to your sources.
Try the sites listed below. These are only some of the sites that I have stored in my Favorite Places. Those sites that contain aol in the URL might not open if you are not signed into AOL. The last site listed below is very interesting since it list 210 reasons for the decline of Rome. You might want to include that information in either your introduction or conclusion.
Good luck with your presentation.Source(s): aol://4344:152.rome60P9.1903944.598686499 http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/rome4/ aol://4344:152.HHD23G08.1946838.587316384 aol://4344:152.HHD23G09.1904225.598719845 http://www.tamos.net/~rhay/romefall.html http://www.roman-empire.net/diverse/faq.html#romef... http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/uc_dorr... http://www.religion.ucsb.edu/faculty/thomas/classe... http://mars.acnet.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc1/le... http://killeenroos.com/1/Romefall.htm aol://4344:152.HHD23G10.35589531.600266368 http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch24.htm http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/fallromeeconomi... http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cjv14n2-7.html http://www.utexas.edu/courses/rome/210reasons.html
- Anonymous1 decade ago
Just don't do it. If you knew everything possible about your Roman Empire, it wouldn't make you one dime in your entire lifetime. This is a classic example of what is wrong with schools. They teach this worthless nonsense when they should be using your valuable time to teach you how to earn a living..
- J~MeLv 51 decade ago
I was going to say what the first person said...
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- Anonymous1 decade ago
THIS IS MADNESS